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Home » Raw Herbs » Fruits

Citrullus colocynthis  (Linn.) Schrad.

   

click to enlarge image

Botanical Name

:

Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrad.

English Name

:

Bitter Apple. Bitter Cucumber and Colocynth

Synonym(s)

:

Colocynthis vulgaris Schrad. Cucumis colocynthis. Linn.

Family

:

Cucurbitaceae

 

General Info

Description

A scabrid perennial with prostrate or climbing angular stems and bifid tendrils. Leaves ovate or triangular, deeply 3-lobed, lobes sinuately pinnatifid; flowers monoecious, yellow, solitary, axillary; pepo or gourd 4-10 cm in diam, smooth, globose, green mottled with yellow blotches, pulp bitter, spongy; seeds numerous, white or light brown.

Herb Effects

Hypoglycemic (plant) and laxative (fruit).

Links

Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad.
Botanical.com

Chemistry

Active Ingredients

Ascorbic acid, beta-sitosterol, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, citrulline, colocynthin, cucurbitacin-B, ferulic acid, quercitrin (fruit); citrullene, citrulluic acid and scitrullin (fruit juice); alpha-amyrin, linoleic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid (seed); anethole, anisaldehyde, benzyl-alcohol, citral, lauric acid, limonene, p-cymene (petiole); citronellal, citronellol, methyl-eugenol, oleanolic acid (plant)

Chemistry of Active Ingredients
Product Categories

Name

CAS#

IUPAC Name

Formula

Structure

Product Categories
Colocynthin 1398-78-3 [6-hydroxy-6-[16-hyd
roxy-4,4,9,13,14-pen
tamethyl-3,11-dioxo-
2-[3,4,5-t rihydrox
y-6-(hydroxymethyl)o
xan-2-yl]oxy-8,10,12
,15,16,17-hexahydro-
7H -cyclopenta[a]ph
enanthren-17-yl]-2-m
ethyl-5-oxo-hept-3-e
n-2-yl] acetat e
C38H54O13 Click Here To Enlarge
Ascorbic acid Not Available 2-(1,2-dihydroxyethy
l)-4,5-dihydroxy-fur
an-3-one
C6H8O6 Click Here To Enlarge
beta-Sitosterol 5779-62-4 17-(5-ethyl-6-methyl
-heptan-2-yl)-10,13-
dimethyl-2,3,4,7,8,9
,11,12,14, 15,16,17
-dodecahydro-1H-cycl
openta[a]phenanthren
-3-ol
C29H50O Click Here To Enlarge
Caffeic acid Not Available 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphen
yl)prop-2-enoic acid
C9H8O4 Click Here To Enlarge
Chlorogenic acid 327-97-9 3-[3-(3,4-dihydroxyp
henyl)prop-2-enoylox
y]-1,4,5-trihydroxy-
cyclohexan e-1-carb
oxylic acid
C16H18O9 Click Here To Enlarge
Citrulline 627-77-0 2-amino-5-carbamoyla
mino-pentanoic acid
C6H13N3O3 Click Here To Enlarge
Cucurbitacin B Not Available [6-(2,16-dihydroxy-4
,4,9,13,14-pentameth
yl-3,11-dioxo-2,7,8,
10,12,15,1 6,17-oct
ahydro-1H-cyclopenta
[a]phenanthren-17-yl
)-6-hydroxy-2-methyl
-5 -oxo-hept-3-en-2
-yl] acetate
C32H46O8 Click Here To Enlarge
Ferulic acid 24276-84-4 3-(4-hydroxy-3-metho
xy-phenyl)prop-2-eno
ic acid
C10H10O4 Click Here To Enlarge
Quercitrin 6151-25-3 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphen
yl)-4,5-dihydroxy-3-
(3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-
methyl-oxa n-2-yl)o
xy-chromen-7-one
C21H20O11 Click Here To Enlarge
alpha-Amyrin 638-95-9 4,4,6a,6b,8a,11,12,1
4b-octamethyl-2,3,4a
,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,
12a,14,14a -tetrade
cahydro-1H-picen-3-o
l
C30H50O Click Here To Enlarge
Linoleic acid 8024-22-4 Octadeca-9,12-dienoi
c acid
C18H32O2 Click Here To Enlarge
Oleic acid 8046-01-3 octadec-9-enoic acid C18H34O2 Click Here To Enlarge
Palmitic acid 66321-94-6 hexadecanoic acid C16H32O2 Click Here To Enlarge
Stearic acid 82497-27-6 octadecanoic acid C18H36O2 Click Here To Enlarge
Anethole 8022-08-0 1-methoxy-4-prop-1-e
nyl-benzene
C10H12O Click Here To Enlarge
Anisaldehyde 50984-52-6 4-methoxybenzaldehyd
e
C8H8O2 Click Here To Enlarge
Benzyl alcohol 185532-71-2 phenylmethanol C7H8O Click Here To Enlarge
Citral 96680-15-8 3,7-dimethylocta-2,6
-dienal
C10H16O Click Here To Enlarge
Lauric acid 8045-27-0 Dodecanoic acid C12H24O2 Click Here To Enlarge
Limonene 9003-73-0 1-methyl-4-prop-1-en
-2-yl-cyclohexene
C10H16 Click Here To Enlarge
p-Cymene Not Available Dichlororuthenium;
1-methyl-5,6-dihydro
-4H-pyrimidine;
p-cymene
C15H24Cl2N2Ru Click Here To Enlarge
Citronellal 26489-02-1 3,7-dimethyloct-6-en
al
C10H18O Click Here To Enlarge
Citronellol 26489-01-0 3,7-dimethyloct-6-en
-1-ol
C10H20O Click Here To Enlarge
Oleanolic acid 508-02-1 10-hydroxy-2,2,6a,6b
,9,9,12a-heptamethyl
-1,3,4,5,6,6a,7,8,8a
,10,11,12, 13,14b-t
etradecahydropicene-
4a-carboxylic acid
C30H48O3 Click Here To Enlarge

Pharmacology

Medicinal Use

Rheumatism, urinary disorders and jaundice (root); for constipation, amenorrhea and dropsy (Colocynth pulp which is freed from seeds); Diabetes (plant).

Reference

Chandel et al., Biodiversity in Medicinal and Aromatic Plants in India.


Bentley and Trimen, Medicinal Plants.

Johnson T. CRC Ethnobotany Desk Reference (www.herbweb.com/herbage).

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