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Home » Raw Herbs » Seeds

Piper nigrum  L.

   

click to enlarge image

Botanical Name

:

Piper nigrum L.

English Name

:

Black Pepper, Madagascar pepper, Pepper, White pepper

Synonym(s)

:

Piper trioicum, Roxb. Piper baccatum Cas.

Family

:

Piperaceae

 

General Info

Description

It is a perennial with a round, smooth, woody stem, with articulations, swelling near the joints and branched; the leaves are entire, broadly ovate, acuminate, coriaceous, smooth, with seven nerves; colour dark green and attached by strong sheath-like foot-stalks to joints of branches. Flowers small, white, sessile, covering a tubular spadix; fruits globular, red berries when ripe, and surface coarsely wrinkled.

Herb Effects

Diuretic, stimulant, carminative, antifungal, antibacterial, kills certain larvae and tapeworms and stimulates the secretion of gastric juices (fruit); lowers blood pressure (leaf), abortifacient, antiinflammatory and rubefacient.

Links

Pepper
Herbal Monograph

Chemistry

Active Ingredients

Piperine, hentriacontanol, hentriacontane and beta-sitosterol (stem), sabinene, alpha and beta-pinene, myrcene and limonene (fruit's essential oil), chavicin (a resin); 1,8-cineole, alpha-linolenic acid, alpha-pinene, alpha-terpinene, alpha-terpeniol, ascorbic acid, benzoic acid, beta-bisabolene, beta-carotene, beta-pinene, borneol, camphene, camphor, carvacrol, carvone, cinnamic acid, citral, citronellal, d-limonene, delta-3-carene, delta-cadinene, eugenol, gamma-terpinene, lauric acid, linalyl-acetate, linoleic acid, methyl-eugenol, myrcene, myristicin, nerolidol, niacin, oleic acid, oxalic acid, p-cymene, palmitic acid, piperine, safrole, terpinen-4-ol, terpinolene, thiamin, ubiquinone (fruit);

Chemistry of Active Ingredients
Product Categories

Name

CAS#

IUPAC Name

Formula

Structure

Product Categories
Piperine 7780-20-3 5-benzo[1,3]dioxol-5
-yl-1-(1-piperidyl)p
enta-2,4-dien-1-one
C17H19NO3 Click Here To Enlarge
Hentriacontane 630-04-6 Hentriacontane C31H64 Click Here To Enlarge
Sabinene 3387-41-5 4-methylidene-1-prop
an-2-yl-bicyclo[3.1.
0]hexane
C10H16 Click Here To Enlarge
Myrcene 2153-31-3 7-methyl-3-methylide
ne-octa-1,6-diene
C10H16 Click Here To Enlarge
Limonene 9003-73-0 1-methyl-4-prop-1-en
-2-yl-cyclohexene
C10H16 Click Here To Enlarge
Piperidine 6091-44-7 Piperidine C5H11N Click Here To Enlarge
Chavicine 495-91-0 Not Available Not Available Click Here To Enlarge
Beta-Sitosterol 5779-62-4 17-(5-ethyl-6-methyl
-heptan-2-yl)-10,13-
dimethyl-2,3,4,7,8,9
,11,12,14,
15,16,17-dodecahydro
-1H-cyclopenta[a]phe
nanthren-3-ol
C29H50O Click Here To Enlarge
alpha-Pinene 80-56-8 2,7,7-trimethylbicyc
lo[3.1.1]hept-2-ene
C10H16
beta-Pinene 23089-32-9 6,6-dimethyl-2-methy
lidene-norpinane
C10H16 Click Here To Enlarge
Beta Carotene 7235-40-7 3,7,12,16-tetramethy
l-1,18-bis(2,6,6-tri
methyl-1-cyclohexeny
l)-octadec a-1,3,5,
7,9,11,13,15,17-nona
ene
C40H56 Click Here To Enlarge
Borneol 10385-78-1 1,7,7-trimethylnorbo
rnan-2-ol
C10H18O Click Here To Enlarge
Camphene 5794-04-7 2,2-dimethyl-3-methy
lidene-norbornane
C10H16 Click Here To Enlarge
Camphor 8022-77-3 1,7,7-trimethylnorbo
rnan-2-one
C10H16O Click Here To Enlarge
Carvacrol 499-75-2 2-methyl-5-propan-2-
yl-phenol
C10H14O Click Here To Enlarge
Carvone 53763-73-8 2-methyl-5-prop-1-en
-2-yl-cyclohex-2-en-
1-one
C10H14O Click Here To Enlarge
Cinnamic acid 63938-16-9 3-phenylprop-2-enoic
acid
C9H8O2 Click Here To Enlarge
Citral 96680-15-8 3,7-dimethylocta-2,6
-dienal
C10H16O Click Here To Enlarge
Citronellal 26489-02-1 3,7-dimethyloct-6-en
al
C10H18O Click Here To Enlarge
D-limonene 95327-98-3 1-methyl-4-prop-1-en
-2-yl-cyclohexene
C10H16 Click Here To Enlarge
delta-Cadinene Not Available 1,6-dimethyl-4-propa
n-2-yl-2,3,4,4a,7,8-
hexahydronaphthalene
C15H24 Click Here To Enlarge
Eugenol 97-53-0 2-methoxy-4-prop-2-e
nyl-phenol
C10H12O2 Click Here To Enlarge
gamma-Terpinene 99-85-4 1-methyl-4-propan-2-
yl-cyclohexa-1,4-die
ne
C10H16 Click Here To Enlarge
Lauric acid 8045-27-0 Dodecanoic acid C12H24O2 Click Here To Enlarge
Linalyl acetate 8022-85-3 3,7-dimethylocta-1,6
-dien-3-yl acetate
C12H20O2 Click Here To Enlarge
Linoleic acid 8024-22-4 Octadeca-9,12-dienoi
c acid
C18H32O2 Click Here To Enlarge
Myrcene 2153-31-3 7-methyl-3-methylide
ne-octa-1,6-diene
C10H16 Click Here To Enlarge
Myristicin Not Available 4-methoxy-6-prop-2-e
nyl-benzo[1,3]dioxol
e
C11H12O3 Click Here To Enlarge
Nerolidol 14528-94-0 3,7,11-trimethyldode
ca-1,6,10-trien-3-ol
C15H26O Click Here To Enlarge
Niacin 99148-57-9 pyridine-3-carboxyli
c acid
C6H5NO2 Click Here To Enlarge
Oleic acid 8046-01-3 octadec-9-enoic acid C18H34O2 Click Here To Enlarge
Oxalic acid 553-91-3 oxalic acid C2H2O4 Click Here To Enlarge
p-Cymene Not Available dichlororuthenium;
1-methyl-5,6-dihydro
-4H-pyrimidine;
p-cymene
C15H24Cl2N2Ru Click Here To Enlarge
Palmitic acid 66321-94-6 Hexadecanoic acid C16H32O2 Click Here To Enlarge
Piperine 7780-20-3 5-benzo[1,3]dioxol-5
-yl-1-(1-piperidyl)p
enta-2,4-dien-1-one
C17H19NO3 Click Here To Enlarge
Safrole Not Available 5-prop-2-enylbenzo[1
,3]dioxole
C10H10O2 Click Here To Enlarge
Terpinen-4-ol Not Available 4-methyl-1-propan-2-
yl-cyclohex-3-en-1-o
l
C10H18O Click Here To Enlarge
Terpinolene 586-62-9 1-methyl-4-propan-2-
ylidene-cyclohexene
C10H16 Click Here To Enlarge
Thiamin 59-43-8 2-[3-[(4-amino-2-met
hyl-pyrimidin-5-yl)m
ethyl]-4-methyl-1-th
ia-3-azoni acyclope
nta-2,4-dien-5-yl]et
hanol
C12H17N4OS+ Click Here To Enlarge

Pharmacology

Medicinal Use

In malaria, as a diuretic and in various gastrointestinal problems (fruit), cancer (especially that of the nose), corns, gonorrhea, headache, sores, swellings, cholera, craw-craw and dhobey itch, as an aromatic stimulant for disorders such as coma, good for constipation, also on the urinary organs; externally it is a rubefacient, useful in relaxed conditions of the rectum when prolapsed.

Contraindication

Peptic ulcer patients should avoid any spice that causes discomfort, which would include black pepper, red pepper, and chili powder, that may produce dyspepsia (Marotta and Floch, 1991).

Reference

Chandel et al., Biodiversity in Medicinal and Aromatic Plants in India.


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