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Home » Plant infomation

Sambucus nigra  Linn.

   

click to enlarge image

Botanical Name

:

Sambucus nigra Linn.

English Name

:

Elderberry and Elder

Family

:

Caprifoliaceae

 

General Info

Description

A deciduous shrub growing to 4-6 m (rarely to 10 m) tall. The leaves are arranged in opposite pairs, 10-30 cm long, pinnate with five to seven (rarely nine) leaflets, the leaflets 5-12 cm long and 3-5 cm broad, with a serrated margin. The flowers are borne in large corymbs 10-25 cm diameter in mid summer, the individual flowers white, 5-6 mm diameter, with five petals. The fruit is a dark purple to black berry 3-5 mm diameter, juicy.

Herb Effects

Antiinflammatory, slightly diuretic and laxative, antiseptic and diaphoretic (flower); laxative, diuretic and diaphoretic (leaves); laxative and diuretic (berries)

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Herb Information

Chemistry

Active Ingredients

Beta-amyrin, chlorogenic acid, cycloartenol, isoquercitrin, kaempferol, linoleic acid, lupeol, p-coumaric acid, rutin, tannins (flower); rutin and quercetin (flower and fruit); anthocyanin pigments, beta-carotene, malic acid, nicotinic acid, tyrosine, valerianic acid, vitamins A. B. and C (fruit); alpha-amyrin, beta-sitosterol, betulin, choline, oleanolic acid (bark); astragalin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, riboflavin, shikimic acid, stearic acid, thiamin (plant); lauric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid (seed); oleic acid, quercetin, stigmasterol, tannin (leaf); ursolic acid (bark, flower, leaf)

Chemistry of Active Ingredients
Product Categories

Name

CAS#

IUPAC Name

Formula

Structure

Product Categories
Tannin 1401-55-4 Not Available C27H22O18 Click Here To Enlarge
Rutin Not Available 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphen
yl)-4,5-dihydroxy-3-
[3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-
[(3,4,5-tr ihydroxy
-6-methyl-tetrahydro
pyran-2-yl)oxymethyl
]tetrahydropyran-2-y
l] oxy-chromen-7-on
e trihydrate
C27H36O19 Click Here To Enlarge
Chlorogenic acid 327-97-9 3-[3-(3,4-dihydroxyp
henyl)prop-2-enoylox
y]-1,4,5-trihydroxy-
cyclohexan e-1-carb
oxylic acid
C16H18O9 Click Here To Enlarge
Quercetin Not Available 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphen
yl)-3,4,5-trihydroxy
-chromen-7-one
C15H10O7 Click Here To Enlarge
Vitamin A 50-37-3 Not Available C20H25N3O Click Here To Enlarge
Vitamin C 89924-69-6 2-(1,2-dihydroxyethy
l)-4,5-dihydroxy-fur
an-3-one
C6H8O6 Click Here To Enlarge
Vitamin B 59-67-6 pyridine-3-carboxyli
c acid
C6H5NO2 Click Here To Enlarge
Beta-Amyrin 559-70-6 4,4,6a,6b,8a,11,11,1
4b-octamethyl-1,2,3,
4a,5,6,7,8,9,10,12,1
2a,14,14a- tetradec
ahydropicen-3-ol
C30H50O Click Here To Enlarge
Chlorogenic acid 327-97-9 3-[3-(3,4-dihydroxyp
henyl)prop-2-enoylox
y]-1,4,5-trihydroxy-
cyclohexan e-1-carb
oxylic acid
C16H18O9 Click Here To Enlarge
Cycloartenol Not Available Not Available C30H50O Click Here To Enlarge
Isoquercitrin 21637-25-2 3-[5-(1,2-dihydroxye
thyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-
oxolan-2-yl]oxy-2-(3
,4-dihydro xyphenyl
)-4,5-dihydroxy-chro
men-7-one
C21H20O12 Click Here To Enlarge
Kaempferol 80714-53-0 3-[3-[4,5-dihydroxy-
6-(hydroxymethyl)-3-
[3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-
(hydroxyme thyl)oxa
n-2-yl]oxy-oxan-2-yl
]oxy-4,5-dihydroxy-6
-(hydroxymethyl)oxan
-2 -yl]oxy-4,5-dihy
droxy-2-(4-hydroxyph
enyl)-chromen-7-one
C33H40O21 Click Here To Enlarge
Linoleic acid 8024-22-4 Octadeca-9,12-dienoi
c acid
C18H32O2 Click Here To Enlarge
Lupeol Not Available Not Available C30H50O Click Here To Enlarge
p-Coumaric acid 501-98-4 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)p
rop-2-enoic acid
C9H8O3 Click Here To Enlarge
Quercetin Not Available 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphen
yl)-3,4,5-trihydroxy
-chromen-7-one
C15H10O7 Click Here To Enlarge
beta-Carotene Not Available 3,7,12,16-tetramethy
l-1,18-bis(2,6,6-tri
methyl-1-cyclohexeny
l)-octadec a-1,3,5,
7,9,11,13,15,17-nona
ene
C40H56 Click Here To Enlarge
Malic acid Not Available 2-hydroxybutanedioic
acid
C4H6O5 Click Here To Enlarge
Nicotinic acid 99148-57-9 pyridine-3-carboxyli
c acid
C6H5NO2 Click Here To Enlarge
Tyrosine 556-02-5 2-amino-3-(4-hydroxy
phenyl)-propanoic
acid
C9H11NO3 Click Here To Enlarge
Valerianic acid 70268-41-6 pentanoic acid C5H10O2 Click Here To Enlarge
alpha-Amyrin 638-95-9 4,4,6a,6b,8a,11,12,1
4b-octamethyl-2,3,4a
,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,
12a,14,14a -tetrade
cahydro-1H-picen-3-o
l
C30H50O Click Here To Enlarge
Beta-sitosterol 5779-62-4 17-(5-ethyl-6-methyl
-heptan-2-yl)-10,13-
dimethyl-2,3,4,7,8,9
,11,12,14,
C29H50O Click Here To Enlarge
Betulin Not Available Not Available C30H50O2 Click Here To Enlarge
Choline 67-48-1 2-hydroxyethyl-trime
thyl-ammonium
C5H14NO+ Click Here To Enlarge
Oleanolic acid 508-02-1 10-hydroxy-2,2,6a,6b
,9,9,12a-heptamethyl
-1,3,4,5,6,6a,7,8,8a
,10,11,12,
13,14b-tetradecahydr
opicene-4a-carboxyli
c acid
C30H48O3 Click Here To Enlarge
Astragalin 480-10-4 4,5-dihydroxy-2-(4-h
ydroxyphenyl)-3-[3,4
,5-trihydroxy-6-(hyd
roxymethyl )oxan-2-
yl]oxy-chromen-7-one
C21H20O11 Click Here To Enlarge
Caffeic acid Not Available 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphen
yl)prop-2-enoic acid
C9H8O4 Click Here To Enlarge
Ferulic acid 24276-84-4 3-(4-hydroxy-3-metho
xy-phenyl)prop-2-eno
ic acid
C10H10O4 Click Here To Enlarge
Riboflavin Not Available Not Available C17H21N4O9P Click Here To Enlarge
Shikimic acid 138-59-0 3,4,5-trihydroxycycl
ohexene-1-carboxylic
acid
C7H10O5 Click Here To Enlarge
Stearic acid 82497-27-6 octadecanoic acid C18H36O2 Click Here To Enlarge
Thiamin 59-43-8 2-[3-[(4-amino-2-met
hyl-pyrimidin-5-yl)m
ethyl]-4-methyl-1-th
ia-3-azoni acyclope
nta-2,4-dien-5-yl]et
hanol
C12H17N4OS+ Click Here To Enlarge
Lauric acid 8045-27-0 Dodecanoic acid C12H24O2 Click Here To Enlarge
Myristic Acid Not Available Hexane C6H14 Click Here To Enlarge
Palmitic acid 66321-94-6 Hexadecanoic acid C16H32O2 Click Here To Enlarge
Oleic acid 8046-01-3 octadec-9-enoic acid C18H34O2 Click Here To Enlarge
Stigmasterol 4736-55-4 17-(4-ethyl-1,5-dime
thyl-hex-2-enyl)-10,
13-dimethyl-1,2,4,5,
6,7,8,9,10 ,11,12,1
3,14,15,16,17-hexade
cahydrocyclopenta[a]
phenanthren-3-one
C29H48O Click Here To Enlarge
Ursolic acid 77-52-1 10-hydroxy-1,2,6a,6b
,9,9,12a-heptamethyl
-2,3,4,5,6,6a,7,8,8a
,10,11,12,
C30H48O3 Click Here To Enlarge

Pharmacology

Medicinal Use

For infections related to the chills, in bronchial asthma, as mouth-wash and gargle, hoarseness, rhinitis and gum inflammation (flower); in sciatica, rheumatism, migraine and cough (fruit); as snuff to stop bleeding of the nose (leaf powder); in epilepsy (bark or flower); in colds, inflamed throat, gout, rheumatism and neuralgia (berries)

Reference

Battelli MG. Citores L. Buonamici L. Ferreras JM. de Benito FM. Stirpe F. GirbesT. Toxicity and cytotoxicity of nigrin b. a two-chain ribosome-inactivating protein from Sambucus nigra: comparison with ricin. Arch Toxicol1997;71(6):360-4.

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