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Home » Raw Herbs » Roots

Acorus calamus  Linn.

   

click to enlarge image

Botanical Name

:

Acorus calamus Linn.

English Name

:

Sweetflag, Calamus, Grass myrtle, Myrtleflag, Rat root, Sweet grass, Sweet myrtle, Sweet rush and Cinnamon Sedge

Synonym(s)

:

Acorus griffithii Schott., Acorus belangeii Schott, Acorus casia Bertol.

Family

:

Araceae

 

General Info

Description

A strongly aromatic semi-aquatic perennial herb; rhizomes creeping, jointed, somewhat vertically compressed, 1.3 to 2.5 cm thick, pale to dark brown and spongy inside. Leaves narrow, up to 80 cm long, linear to narrowly ensiform, glossy bright green, apex acute, base amplexicaul; petioles sheathing for 20 to 50 cm. Flowers pale green, fragrant, arranged compactly on a sessile, cylindrical, stumpy spadix 5 to 7 cm long. Fruits (berries) green, angular, 3-celled, fleshy, containing 1 to 3 oblong seeds.

Herb Effects

Analgesic, sedative, anthelmintic, antispasmodic, anticonvulsant, antidiarrheal, antirheumatic, antiseptic, aphrodisiac, purifies the blood, carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic, emetic, expectorant, reduces fever, hemostatic, laxative, kills fleas and lice.

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Plants for a Future
Acorus calamus
Vacha
M e d i c i n a l P l a n t s
Herbal Remedies
Herb Information

Chemistry

Active Ingredients

1-8,Cineole, alpha-asarone, alpha-pinene, alpha-terpineol, azulene, beta-asarone, beta-elemene, beta-pinene, camphene, camphor, choline, delta-cadinene, elemicin, ethanol, eugenol, furfural, isoeugenol, limonene, menthol, menthone, methyl-eugenol, methyl-isoeugenol, p-cymene, terpinen-4-ol, terpinolene (rhizome); alpha-humulene, acoric acid, alpha-terpinene, ascorbic acid, borneol, butyric acid, gamma-terpinene, methyl-chavicol, myrcene, ocimene, oxalic acid, palmitic acid, tannin, trans-anethole (plant)

Chemistry of Active Ingredients
Product Categories

Name

CAS#

IUPAC Name

Formula

Structure

Product Categories
Oxalic acid 553-91-3 Oxalic acid C2H2O4 Click Here To Enlarge
1,8-Cineole 8024-53-1 2,2,4-trimethyl-3-ox
abicyclo[2.2.2]octan
e
C10H18O Click Here To Enlarge
alpha-Asarone 2883-98-9 1,2,4-trimethoxy-5-[
(Z)-prop-1-enyl]benz
ene
C12H16O3 Click Here To Enlarge
alpha-Pinene 80-56-8 2,7,7-trimethylbicyc
lo[3.1.1]hept-2-ene
C10H16 Click Here To Enlarge
alpha-Terpineol 10482-56-1 2-(4-methyl-1-cycloh
ex-3-enyl)propan-2-o
l
C10H18O Click Here To Enlarge
Azulene Not Available 3,8-dimethyl-5-propa
n-2-yl-azulene-1-sul
fonic acid
C15H18O3S Click Here To Enlarge
beta-Asarone Not Available 1,2,4-trimethoxy-5-[
(Z)-prop-1-enyl]benz
ene
C12H16O3 Click Here To Enlarge
Beta-elemene 33880-83-0 1-ethenyl-1-methyl-2
,4-diprop-1-en-2-yl-
cyclohexane
C15H24 Click Here To Enlarge
Beta-pinene 23089-32-9 6,6-dimethyl-2-methy
lidene-norpinane
C10H16 Click Here To Enlarge
Camphene 5794-04-7 2,2-dimethyl-3-methy
lidene-norbornane
C10H16 Click Here To Enlarge
Camphor 8022-77-3 1,7,7-trimethylnorbo
rnan-2-one
C10H16O Click Here To Enlarge
Choline 67-48-1 2-hydroxyethyl-trime
thyl-ammonium
C5H14NO+ Click Here To Enlarge
delta-Cadinene Not Available 1,6-dimethyl-4-propa
n-2-yl-2,3,4,4a,7,8-
hexahydronaphthalene
C15H24 Click Here To Enlarge
Elemicin Not Available 1,2,3-trimethoxy-5-p
rop-2-enyl-benzene
C12H16O3 Click Here To Enlarge
Ethanol 8024-45-1 ethanol C2H6O Click Here To Enlarge
Eugenol 97-53-0 2-methoxy-4-prop-2-e
nyl-phenol
C10H12O2 Click Here To Enlarge
Furfural Not Available furan-2-carbaldehyde C5H4O2 Click Here To Enlarge
Isoeugenol 97-54-1 2-methoxy-4-prop-1-e
nyl-phenol
C10H12O2 Click Here To Enlarge
Limonene 9003-73-0 1-methyl-4-prop-1-en
-2-yl-cyclohexene
C10H16 Click Here To Enlarge
Menthol 2216-51-5 5-methyl-2-propan-2-
yl-cyclohexan-1-ol
C10H20O Click Here To Enlarge
Menthone 89-80-5 5-methyl-2-propan-2-
yl-cyclohexan-1-one
C10H18O Click Here To Enlarge
p-Cymene Not Available Dichlororuthenium;
1-methyl-5,6-dihydro
-4H-pyrimidine;
p-cymene
C15H24Cl2N2Ru Click Here To Enlarge
Terpinen-4-ol Not Available 1-methyl-4-propan-2-
yl-cyclohex-3-en-1-o
l
C10H18O Click Here To Enlarge
Terpinolene 586-62-9 1-methyl-4-propan-2-
ylidene-cyclohexene
C10H16 Click Here To Enlarge
Alpha-humulene 6753-98-6 2,6,6,9-tetramethylc
ycloundeca-1,4,8-tri
ene
C15H24 Click Here To Enlarge
alpha-Terpinene 99-86-5 1-methyl-4-propan-2-
yl-cyclohexa-1,3-die
ne
C10H16 Click Here To Enlarge
Ascorbic acid Not Available 2-(1,2-dihydroxyethy
l)-4,5-dihydroxy-fur
an-3-one
C6H8O6 Click Here To Enlarge
Borneol 10385-78-1 1,7,7-trimethylnorbo
rnan-2-ol
C10H18O Click Here To Enlarge
Butyric acid 107-92-6 Butanoic acid C4H8O2 Click Here To Enlarge
gamma-Terpinene 99-85-4 1-methyl-4-propan-2-
yl-cyclohexa-1,4-die
ne
C10H16 Click Here To Enlarge
Methyl chavicol 77525-18-9 1-methoxy-4-prop-2-e
nyl-benzene
C10H12O Click Here To Enlarge
Myrcene 2153-31-3 7-methyl-3-methylide
ne-octa-1,6-diene
C10H16 Click Here To Enlarge
Ocimene 13877-91-3 3,7-dimethylocta-1,3
,6-triene
C10H16 Click Here To Enlarge
Oxalic acid 553-91-3 Oxalic acid C2H2O4 Click Here To Enlarge
Palmitic acid 66321-94-6 Hexadecanoic acid C16H32O2 Click Here To Enlarge
Tannin 1401-55-4 Not Available C27H22O18 Click Here To Enlarge
trans-Anethole 57131-42-7 1-methoxy-4-[(E)-pro
p-1-enyl]benzene
C10H12O Click Here To Enlarge

Pharmacology

Medicinal Use

Asthma, bronchitis, for burns, cancer, catarrh, colds, cough, sore throat, colic, constipation, diarrhea, dysentery, indigestion, epilepsy, fever, flatulence, gangrene poisoning, headache, hemorrhages, nerve problems, odontosis and in parturition.

Contraindication

Caution should be used with concomitant use of benzodiazepines, barbituates, MAO inhibitors and anticonvulsants (Opdyke 1977). Acorus is emetic in large doses. Avoid the use of the Asian (3n, 4n) species in clients with liver dysfunction due to the beta-asarone content (Weiss 1988). Acorus calamus should probably not be used in pregnancy.

Reference

Chandel et al., Biodiversity in Medicinal and Aromatic Plants in India.


Grieve M. A Modern Herbal. 1931 (www.botanical.com).

Johnson T. CRC Ethnobotany Desk Reference (www.herbweb.com/herbage).

Opdyke DJL. Calamus Oil. Food Cosmet Toxicol. 1977,15:623-6.

Weiss, Rudolf. Herbal Medicine. 1988 Translated by A.R. Meuss. Beaconsfield, England: Beaconsfield Publishers.

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