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Home » Raw Herbs » Leaves

Hyoscyamus niger  L.

   

click to enlarge image

Botanical Name

:

Hyoscyamus niger L.

English Name

:

Black or Egyptian Henbane and Henbane

Synonym(s)

:

Hyoscyamus agrestis, Kit., Hyoscyamus pallidus, Kit.

Family

:

Solanaceae

 

General Info

Description

It is an erect, annual or biennial, hairy and viscid herb with bad odour. Stem robust and grows up to few meters in high. Radical leaves are smaller, sessile, ovate, pinnatifid and passing in to bracts. Flowers appear from August- September, lower ones are in the forks of the branches, upper solitary in the axis of the leaf like bract, forming inside spikes roller back at the top before flowering, which ultimately forming elongated and straight. Calyx is urn shaped, shortly 5 lobed, limb funnel shaped and in fruit it is elongated. Corolla funnel shaped lobes 5, short, slightly unequal, purple in base, limb lurid green, purple veined and darker in the centre. Stamens are protruding out. Ovary 2 celled. Capsule globose. Seeds are compressed, many and scrobuculate.

Herb Effects

Analgesic and alleviates spasms (leaf); dilates the eye pupil (plant juice); stimulates heart, followed by a sedative effect (in moderate doses); small doses act as a heart sedative and a tonic; induces sleep; induces delirium (in large enough doses).

Links

Plants for a future
The American Materia Medica, Therapeutics and Pharmacognosy
King's American Dispensatory
Botanical.com

Chemistry

Active Ingredients

Atropine, chlorogenic acid, gaba, hyoscine, hyposcyamine, tropine, rutin and cuscohygrine (leaf); choline, coumarin, esculetin, (plant); scopalamine (leaf).

Chemistry of Active Ingredients
Product Categories

Name

CAS#

IUPAC Name

Formula

Structure

Product Categories
Atropine 5934-50-9 (8-methyl-8-azabicyc
lo[3.2.1]oct-3-yl)
3-hydroxy-2-phenyl-p
ropanoate
C17H23NO3 Click Here To Enlarge
Chlorogenic acid 327-97-9 3-[3-(3,4-dihydroxyp
henyl)prop-2-enoylox
y]-1,4,5-trihydroxy-
cyclohexan e-1-carb
oxylic acid
C16H18O9 Click Here To Enlarge
Gaba 70582-09-1 4-aminobutanoic acid C4H9NO2 Click Here To Enlarge
Hyoscine 6533-68-2 Not Available C17H21NO4 Click Here To Enlarge
Tropine 28390-68-3 8-methyl-8-azabicycl
o[3.2.1]octan-3-ol
C8H15NO Click Here To Enlarge
Rutin Not Available 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphen
yl)-4,5-dihydroxy-3-
[3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-
[(3,4,5-tr ihydroxy
-6-methyl-tetrahydro
pyran-2-yl)oxymethyl
]tetrahydropyran-2-y
l] oxy-chromen-7-on
e trihydrate
C27H36O19 Click Here To Enlarge
Cuscohygrine 454-14-8 1,3-bis(1-methylpyrr
olidin-2-yl)propan-2
-one
C13H24N2O Click Here To Enlarge
Choline 67-48-1 2-hydroxyethyl-trime
thyl-ammonium
C5H14NO+ Click Here To Enlarge
Coumarin 60094-90-8 6-(1,2-dihydroxy-3-m
ethyl-but-3-enyl)-7-
methoxy-chromen-2-on
e
C15H16O5 Click Here To Enlarge
Esculetin Not Available 2,6-dihydroxychromen
-7-one
C9H6O4 Click Here To Enlarge

Pharmacology

Medicinal Use

Rheumatism (plant); diabetes and as an analgesic specifically used for pain affecting the urinary tract, especially when due to kidney stones(leaf); dilating the pupil of the eye (plant juice); alleviating spasms (including in the urinary tract), in treating Parkinson's disease, anxiety disorders, asthma, whooping cough, motion sickness, Meniere's syndrome and for inducing sleep. Externally, it is used as an oil to relieve painful conditions such as neuralgia, dental and rheumatic pains. Hyoscyamus has anodyne, narcotic, sedative and mydriatic properties.

Reference

Bentley and Trimen, Medicinal Plants.


Chandel et al., Biodiversity in Medicinal and Aromatic Plants in India.

Sharma, Classical Uses of Medicinal Plants.

The Himalaya Drug Company.

Uniyal et al., Medicinal Flora of Garhwal Himalayas.

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