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Home » Raw Herbs » Kernal

Arachis hypogaea  L.

   

Botanical Name

:

Arachis hypogaea L.

English Name

:

Earth nut, Goober pea, Groundnut, Mani, Monkey nut, Peanut, Runner peanut, Spanish peanut, Valencia peanut, Virginia peanut

Synonym(s)

:

Arachidna hypogaea (L.) Moench, Arachis africana Lour., Arachis americana Ten., Arachis asiatica Lour., Arachis hypogaea L. forma communis (A.Chev.) F. J. Herm., Arachis hypogaea L. forma macrocarpa (A.Chev.) Hoehne, Arachis hypogaea L. forma microcarpa (A.Chev.) Hoehne, Arachis hypogaea L. forma nambyquarae (Hoehne) F. J. Herm., Arachis hypogaea L. forma typica Hoehne, Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. fastigiata Waldron, Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. nambyquarae (Hoehne) A.Chev., Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. oleifera A. Chev., Arachis hypogaea L. var. communis A.Chev., Arachis hypogaea L. var. gigantea Patel & Narayana, Arachis hypogaea L. var. hirsuta Kohler, Arachis hypogaea L. var. macrocarpa A.Chev., Arachis hypogaea L. var. microcarpa A.Chev., Arachis hypogaea L. var. nambyquarae (Hoehne) Burkart, Arachis hypogaea L. var. stenocarpa A.Chev., Arachis hypogaea L. var. vulgaris Harz, Arachis nambyquarae Hoehne , Arachis rasteiro A.Che

Family

:

Fabaceae

 

General Info

Description

An annual ascending, decumbent, or prostrate herb with upright main or n-axes. Tap root with four series of spirally arranged lateral roots with abundant branching and usually heavily supplied with nodules. Root tip without epidermis and without root liars. Leaves stipulate, pinnate with two opposite pairs of leaflets, alternately arranged in a 2/5 phyllotaxy on main axis; distichous on higher order branches. Flowers pea-like, enclosed between two bracts, one simple, subtending a very short peduncle, the other bifid, subtending the pedicel; sessile, but appear to be stalked after growth of a tubular hypanthium just before anthesis; petals, orange, yellow, cream or rarely white; inserted between the calyx lobes and ttle fused bases of the anther filaments (staminal column). Fruit, an indehiscent legume up to 10 cm long; seeds 1–5, from less than 1 cm long x 0.5 cm thick to 3.5 cm x 1.5 cm weighing less than weight less than 0.2 g to over 2.0 g. Testa thin, colors pink, red, purple, tan, brown, yellow, white or red and white, pink and white, brown and white, purple and white, or marked with small purple dashes or splashes on a base color.

Herb Effects

Antiaggregant, antioxidant, aperient, demulcent, emollient and pectoral (oil from the seeds); anti-inflammatory, aphrodisiac, decoagulant, demulcent, pectoral, and peptic (seeds).

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Chemistry

Active Ingredients

5,7-dihydroxychromone, beta-sitosterol, caprylic acid, chrysoeriol, esculetin, gamma-aminobutyric acid, glyceric acid, heptadecanoic acid, isoquercitrin, lauric acid, quercetin, rutin, sterculic acid, stigmasterol (plant); alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol (oil); alpha-linolenic acid, aspartic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, choline, ferulic acid, folacin, gentisic acid, glutamic acid, glutathione, glycine, histidine, isochlorogenic acid, isoferulic acid, lecithin, leucine, leucocyanidin, leucodelphinidin, lignoceric acid, linoleic acid, lysine, methionine, myristic acid, o-coumaric acid, oleic acid, p-coumaric acid, p-hydroxy benzoic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, pantothenic acid, phenylalanine, protocatechuic acid, salicylic acid, serine, sinapic-acid, stearic acid, syringic acid, valine, vanillic acid (seed); ascorbic acid, beta-carotene, niacin, riboflavin, thiamin, tryptophan, tyrosine (leaf)

Chemistry of Active Ingredients
Product Categories

Name

CAS#

IUPAC Name

Formula

Structure

Product Categories
5,7-Dihydroxychromone Not Available 5,7-dihydroxychromen
-4-one
C9H6O4
Beta-sitosterol 5779-62-4 17-(5-ethyl-6-methyl
-heptan-2-yl)-10,13-
dimethyl-2,3,4,7,8,9
,11,12,14,
C29H50O Click Here To Enlarge
Caprylic acid 764-71-6 octanoic acid C8H16O2 Click Here To Enlarge
Chrysoeriol 491-71-4 4,5-dihydroxy-2-(4-h
ydroxy-3-methoxy-phe
nyl)-chromen-7-one
C16H12O6 Click Here To Enlarge
Esculetin Not Available 2,6-dihydroxychromen
-7-one
C9H6O4 Click Here To Enlarge
gamma-Aminobutyric acid 70582-09-1 4-aminobutanoic acid C4H9NO2 Click Here To Enlarge
Glyceric acid Not Available (2R)-2,3-dihydroxypr
opanoic acid
C3H6O4
Heptadecanoic acid 506-12-7 heptadecanoic acid C17H34O2
Isoquercitrin 21637-25-2 3-[5-(1,2-dihydroxye
thyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-
oxolan-2-yl]oxy-2-(3
,4-dihydro xyphenyl
)-4,5-dihydroxy-chro
men-7-one
C21H20O12 Click Here To Enlarge
Lauric acid 8045-27-0 Dodecanoic acid C12H24O2 Click Here To Enlarge
Quercetin Not Available 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphen
yl)-3,4,5-trihydroxy
-chromen-7-one
C15H10O7 Click Here To Enlarge
Rutin Not Available 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphen
yl)-4,5-dihydroxy-3-
[3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-
[(3,4,5-tr ihydroxy
-6-methyl-tetrahydro
pyran-2-yl)oxymethyl
]tetrahydropyran-2-y
l] oxy-chromen-7-on
e trihydrate
C27H36O19 Click Here To Enlarge
Sterculic acid 738-87-4 8-(2-octyl-1-cyclopr
openyl)octanoic acid
C19H34O2
Stigmasterol 4736-55-4 17-(4-ethyl-1,5-dime
thyl-hex-2-enyl)-10,
13-dimethyl-1,2,4,5,
6,7,8,9,10 ,11,12,1
3,14,15,16,17-hexade
cahydrocyclopenta[a]
phenanthren-3-one
C29H48O Click Here To Enlarge
alpha-Tocopherol. 364-50-1 2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-
2-(5,9,13-trimethylt
etradecyl)chroman-6-
ol
C30H52O2 Click Here To Enlarge
gamma-Tocopherol 7616-22-0 2,7,8-trimethyl-2-(4
,8,12-trimethyltride
cyl)chroman-6-ol
C28H48O2
alpha-Linolenic acid 94138-91-7 octadeca-9,12,15-tri
enoic acid
C18H30O2 Click Here To Enlarge
Aspartic acid 6899-03-2 2-aminobutanedioic
acid
C4H7NO4 Click Here To Enlarge
Caffeic acid Not Available 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphen
yl)prop-2-enoic acid
C9H8O4 Click Here To Enlarge
Choline 67-48-1 2-hydroxyethyl-trime
thyl-ammonium
C5H14NO+ Click Here To Enlarge
Ferulic acid 24276-84-4 3-(4-hydroxy-3-metho
xy-phenyl)prop-2-eno
ic acid
C10H10O4 Click Here To Enlarge
Folacin 6484-89-5 2-[4-[(2-amino-4-oxo
-1H-pteridin-6-yl)me
thylamino]benzoyl]am
inopentane dioic
acid
C19H19N7O6 Click Here To Enlarge
Gentisic acid 4955-90-2 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic
acid
C7H6O4 Click Here To Enlarge
Glutamic acid Not Available 2-aminopentanedioic
acid
C5H9NO4 Click Here To Enlarge
Glutathione 27025-41-8 2-amino-5-[2-[2-(4-a
mino-4-carboxy-butan
oyl)amino-2-(carboxy
methylcarb amoyl)et
hyl]disulfanyl-1-(ca
rboxymethylcarbamoyl
)ethyl]amino-5-oxo-p
en tanoic acid
C20H32N6O12S2 Click Here To Enlarge
Glycine 87867-94-5 2-aminoacetic acid C2H5NO2 Click Here To Enlarge
Histidine 6027-02-7 2-amino-3-(3H-imidaz
ol-4-yl)propanoic
acid
C6H9N3O2 Click Here To Enlarge
Isochlorogenic acid Not Available 3-[(E)-3-(3,4-dihydr
oxyphenyl)prop-2-eno
yl]oxy-1,4,5-trihydr
oxy-cyclohexane-1-ca
rboxylic acid
C16H18O9
Isoferulic acid Not Available (E)-3-(3-hydroxy-4-m
ethoxy-phenyl)prop-2
-enoic acid
C10H10O4 Click Here To Enlarge
Lecithin 8057-53-2 Not Available Not Available Click Here To Enlarge
Leucine 2439-37-4 2-dimethylamino-4-me
thyl-pentanoic acid
C8H17NO2 Click Here To Enlarge
Leucocyanidin 480-17-1 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphen
yl)chroman-3,4,5,7-t
etrol
C15H14O7
Leucodelphinidin 55068-67-2 2-(3,4,5-trihydroxyp
henyl)chroman-3,4,5,
7-tetrol
C15H14O8 Click Here To Enlarge
Lignoceric acid 66502-42-9 tetracosanoic acid C24H48O2 Click Here To Enlarge
Linoleic acid 8024-22-4 Octadeca-9,12-dienoi
c acid
C18H32O2 Click Here To Enlarge
Lysine 923-27-3 2,6-diaminohexanoic
acid
C6H14N2O2 Click Here To Enlarge
Methionine 348-67-4 2-amino-4-methylsulf
anyl-butanoic acid
C5H11NO2S Click Here To Enlarge
Myristic Acid Not Available Hexane C6H14 Click Here To Enlarge
o-Coumaric acid 614-60-8 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)p
rop-2-enoic acid
C9H8O3
Oleic acid 8046-01-3 octadec-9-enoic acid C18H34O2 Click Here To Enlarge
P-coumaric acid 501-98-4 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)p
rop-2-enoic acid
C9H8O3 Click Here To Enlarge
p-Hydroxybenzoic acid 99-96-7 4-hydroxybenzoic
acid
C7H6O3 Click Here To Enlarge
Palmitic acid 66321-94-6 Hexadecanoic acid C16H32O2 Click Here To Enlarge
Palmitoleic acid 2091-29-4 (E)-hexadec-9-enoic
acid
C16H30O2 Click Here To Enlarge
Pantothenic acid 599-54-2 3-[(2,4-dihydroxy-3,
3-dimethyl-butanoyl)
amino]propanoic acid
C9H17NO5 Click Here To Enlarge
Phenylalanine 3617-44-5 2-amino-3-phenyl-pro
panoic acid
C9H11NO2 Click Here To Enlarge
Salicylic acid 8052-31-1 2-hydroxybenzoic
acid
C7H6O3 Click Here To Enlarge
Protocatechuic acid 5417-95-8 N,N-diethyl-N'-(2,4,
8,9-tetrazabicyclo[4
.3.0]nona-2,4,7,10-t
etraen-5-yl)propane-
1,3-diamine
C12H20N6
Serine 6898-95-9 2-amino-3-hydroxy-pr
opanoic acid
C3H7NO3 Click Here To Enlarge
Sinapic acid 530-59-6 3-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dim
ethoxy-phenyl)prop-2
-enoic acid
C11H12O5 Click Here To Enlarge
Stearic acid 82497-27-6 octadecanoic acid C18H36O2 Click Here To Enlarge
Syringic acid 64887-60-1 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimeth
oxy-benzoic acid
C9H10O5 Click Here To Enlarge
Valine 7004-03-7 2-amino-3-methyl-but
anoic acid
C5H11NO2 Click Here To Enlarge
Vanillic acid Not Available 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-
benzoic acid
C8H8O4 Click Here To Enlarge
Ascorbic acid Not Available 2-(1,2-dihydroxyethy
l)-4,5-dihydroxy-fur
an-3-one
C6H8O6 Click Here To Enlarge
Beta Carotene 7235-40-7 3,7,12,16-tetramethy
l-1,18-bis(2,6,6-tri
methyl-1-cyclohexeny
l)-octadec a-1,3,5,
7,9,11,13,15,17-nona
ene
C40H56 Click Here To Enlarge
Niacin 99148-57-9 pyridine-3-carboxyli
c acid
C6H5NO2 Click Here To Enlarge
Riboflavin Not Available Not Available C17H21N4O9P Click Here To Enlarge
Thiamin 59-43-8 2-[3-[(4-amino-2-met
hyl-pyrimidin-5-yl)m
ethyl]-4-methyl-1-th
ia-3-azoni acyclope
nta-2,4-dien-5-yl]et
hanol
C12H17N4OS+ Click Here To Enlarge
Tryptophan 80206-30-0 2-amino-3-(1H-indol-
3-yl)propanoic acid
C11H12N2O2 Click Here To Enlarge
Tyrosine 556-02-5 2-amino-3-(4-hydroxy
phenyl)-propanoic
acid
C9H11NO3 Click Here To Enlarge

Pharmacology

Medicinal Use

The oil from the seeds is taken internally in milk for treating gonorrhoea, externally for treating rheumatism. The seeds are indicated in treating arthrosis, cholecystosis, colics, cystosis, dandruff, dermatosis, diabetes, dislocation, dyslactea, eczema, fungal infections, gonorrhea, ichthyosis, infections, inflammation, mycosis, nephrosis, neuralgia, plantar wart, rheumatism, wart and xeroderma. The alcoholic lipoid fraction of the seed is said to prevent haemophiliac tendencies and for the treatment of some blood disorders (mucorrhagia and arthritic haemorrhages) in haemophilia.

Reference

James A Duke and Maryl Fulton. Handbook of Medicinal Herbs - 2nd Edition, P: 560, CRC Press July 2002.

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