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Home » Raw Herbs » Seeds

Ocimum basilicum  L.

   

click to enlarge image

Botanical Name

:

Ocimum basilicum L.

English Name

:

Sweet. French or Common Basil; Oil of Basil

Synonym(s)

:

Ocimum anisatum; Basilicum citratum.

Family

:

Lamiaceae

 

General Info

Description

This is a hairy, labiate plant, growing about 3 feet high. The stem is obtusely quadrangular, the labiate flowers are white, in whorls in the axils of the leaves, the calyx with the upper lobe rounded and spreading. The leaves, greyish-green beneath and dotted with dark oil cells, are opposite, 1 inch long and 1/3 inch broad, stalked and peculiarly smooth, soft and cool to the touch. Flowers borne in more or less closely set whorls in spicate racemes up to 20 cm long; bracts stalked, shorter than the calyx, ovate, acute; calyx 5 mm long, enlarging in fruit, lower lip with the 2 central teeth longer than the rounded upper lip; corolla 8 to 13 mm long, white, pink or purplish Fruits (nutlets) 2 mm long, narrowly ellipsoid, black, pitted, mucilaginous when wet.

Herb Effects

Improves digestion, stimulates the flow of bile and alleviates spasms (related to digestion); antifungal (essential oil); antibacterial (essential oil, alcohol extract of leaf and flower, aqueous flower extract); carminative (flower and plant); anthelminthic.

Links

Floridata
Herb Information
Plants for a Future
PIER

Chemistry

Active Ingredients

1,8-cineole, anethole, apigenin, ascorbic acid, beta-carotene, beta-sitosterol, caffeic acid, cineole, citronellol, eugenol, geranial, kaempferol, limonene, luteolin, methylchavicol, ocimene, quercetin, rosmarinic acid, rutin, thymol, ursolic acid, estragole and alpha-terpineol (essential oil).

Chemistry of Active Ingredients
Product Categories

Name

CAS#

IUPAC Name

Formula

Structure

Product Categories
1,8-cineole 8024-53-1 2,2,4-trimethyl-3-ox
abicyclo[2.2.2]octan
e
C10H18O Click Here To Enlarge
Anethole 8022-08-0 1-methoxy-4-prop-1-e
nyl-benzene
C10H12O Click Here To Enlarge
Apigenin 520-36-5 4,5-dihydroxy-2-(4-h
ydroxyphenyl)-chrome
n-7-one
C15H10O5 Click Here To Enlarge
Ascorbic acid Not Available 2-(1,2-dihydroxyethy
l)-4,5-dihydroxy-fur
an-3-one
C6H8O6 Click Here To Enlarge
beta-Carotene Not Available 3,7,12,16-tetramethy
l-1,18-bis(2,6,6-tri
methyl-1-cyclohexeny
l)-octadec a-1,3,5,
7,9,11,13,15,17-nona
ene
C40H56 Click Here To Enlarge
beta-Sitosterol 5779-62-4 17-(5-ethyl-6-methyl
-heptan-2-yl)-10,13-
dimethyl-2,3,4,7,8,9
,11,12,14, 15,16,17
-dodecahydro-1H-cycl
openta[a]phenanthren
-3-ol
C29H50O Click Here To Enlarge
Caffeic acid Not Available 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphen
yl)prop-2-enoic acid
C9H8O4 Click Here To Enlarge
Cineole 8024-53-1 2,2,4-trimethyl-3-ox
abicyclo[2.2.2]octan
e
C10H18O Click Here To Enlarge
Citronellol 26489-01-0 3,7-dimethyloct-6-en
-1-ol
C10H20O Click Here To Enlarge
Eugenol 97-53-0 2-methoxy-4-prop-2-e
nyl-phenol
C10H12O2 Click Here To Enlarge
Geranial 141-27-5 3,7-dimethylocta-2,6
-dienal
C10H16O Click Here To Enlarge
Kaempferol 80714-53-0 3-[3-[4,5-dihydroxy-
6-(hydroxymethyl)-3-
[3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-
(hydroxyme thyl)oxa
n-2-yl]oxy-oxan-2-yl
]oxy-4,5-dihydroxy-6
-(hydroxymethyl)oxan
-2 -yl]oxy-4,5-dihy
droxy-2-(4-hydroxyph
enyl)-chromen-7-one
C33H40O21 Click Here To Enlarge
Limonene 9003-73-0 1-methyl-4-prop-1-en
-2-yl-cyclohexene
C10H16 Click Here To Enlarge
Luteolin Not Available 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphen
yl)-4,5-dihydroxy-ch
romen-7-one
C15H10O6 Click Here To Enlarge
Ocimene 13877-91-3 3,7-dimethylocta-1,3
,6-triene
C10H16 Click Here To Enlarge
Quercetin Not Available 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphen
yl)-3,4,5-trihydroxy
-chromen-7-one
C15H10O7 Click Here To Enlarge
Rosmarinic acid 537-15-5 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphen
yl)-2-[3-(3,4-dihydr
oxyphenyl)prop-2-eno
yloxy]prop anoic
acid
C18H16O8 Click Here To Enlarge
Rutin Not Available 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphen
yl)-4,5-dihydroxy-3-
[3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-
[(3,4,5-tr ihydroxy
-6-methyl-tetrahydro
pyran-2-yl)oxymethyl
]tetrahydropyran-2-y
l] oxy-chromen-7-on
e trihydrate
C27H36O19 Click Here To Enlarge
Thymol 89-83-8 5-methyl-2-propan-2-
yl-phenol
C10H14O Click Here To Enlarge
Estragole 77525-18-9 1-methoxy-4-prop-2-e
nyl-benzene
C10H12O Click Here To Enlarge
alpha-Terpineol 10482-56-1 2-(4-methyl-1-cycloh
ex-3-enyl)propan-2-o
l
C10H18O Click Here To Enlarge
Ursolic acid 77-52-1 10-hydroxy-1,2,6a,6b
,9,9,12a-heptamethyl
-2,3,4,5,6,6a,7,8,8a
,10,11,12, 13,14b-t
etradecahydro-1H-pic
ene-4a-carboxylic
acid
C30H48O3 Click Here To Enlarge

Pharmacology

Medicinal Use

Sweet basil acts principally on the digestive and nervous systems, easing flatulence, stomach cramps, colic and indigestion. It is taken internally in the treatment of feverish illnesses, poor digestion, nausea, abdominal cramps, gastro-enteritis, migraine, insomnia, depression and exhaustion. Externally, they are used to treat acne, loss of smell, insect stings, snake bites and skin infections. The mucilaginous seed is given in infusion in the treatment of gonorrhoea, dysentery and chronic diarrhoea. It is remove film and opacity from the eyes also. The root is used in the treatment of bowel complaints in children. Extracts from the plant are bactericidal and are also effective against internal parasites.

Contraindication

Pregnant women should avoid therapeutic doses, Can cause buildup of toxic substances (including mercury) if used long-term; estragole is a known hepatocarcinogen in animals. Used in moderation, It may irritate people with sensitive skin

Reference

Chandel et al., Biodiversity in Medicinal and Aromatic Plants in India.


The Himalaya Drug Company.

Stary, The Natural Guide to Medicinal Herbs and Plants.

Dealers

HRBS EGYPT

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