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Home » Raw Herbs » Berry

Juniperus communis  L.

   

click to enlarge image

Botanical Name

:

Juniperus communis L.

English Name

:

Common Juniper

Synonym(s)

:

Juniperus sibirica, Juniperus nana

Family

:

Cupressaceae

 

General Info

Description

A dwarf, procumbent, busy evergreen shrub, or a neat bush 2 to 5 feet high with upright branches, or a small tree reaching 30 feet high; bark chocolage-brown, coming away in flakes on the old branches, young twigs divaricate. Leaves very numerous, persistent, arranged mostly in threes, spreading at right angles and rigid; when full-grown, about ½ inch long, linear, tapering to a sharp prickly point, articulated on stem, with a prominent knob at the base above, channeled, glaucous or pinkish, with green margins, above, bluntly keeled and bright green beneath; shorter and more concave a the base of the branches. Flowers dioecious, the male in male in small catkins with a few small scales at the base, ovoid or globose, consisting of several whorls of decussate horizontal stamens. Female cones consisting of about 12 to 16 green, ovate, acute, fleshy scales, closely placed in 3 to 5 rows on a short axis and overlapping, the lower empty; the uppermost 3 surrounding the naked ovules, thinner, pinkish. Ovules erect, 3, alternating with the scales. Fruit berry like from the growth of the three uppermost bracts of the cone. Seeds small, 3 in each fruit, close together, their upper half conical and triangular, the lower rounded; testa very hard, with several large glands or sacs on its lower part; embryo straight, in scanty endosperm, cotyledons 2, small; radicle superior.

Herb Effects

Diuretic, stimulates the flow of bile and the appetite.

Links

Common Juniper
Juniper
Plants for a Future

Chemistry

Active Ingredients

An essential oil (similar to turpentine oil), tannins and flavonoids, (+)-catechin, acetic acid, alpha-humulene, alpha-phyllandrene, alpha-pinene, alpha-terpinene, alpha-terpineol, ascorbic acid, beta-carotene, beta-pinene, betulin, borneol, bornyl-acetate, camphor, caryophyllene, citronellal, citronellol, epicatechin, farnesol, gamma-terpinene, limonene, menthol, myrcene, nerolidol, p-cymene, pectin, rutin.

Chemistry of Active Ingredients
Product Categories

Name

CAS#

IUPAC Name

Formula

Structure

Product Categories
(+)-Catechin 5323-80-8 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphen
yl)chroman-3,5,7-tri
ol
C15H14O6 Click Here To Enlarge
Acetic acid 77671-22-8 acetic acid C2H4O2 Click Here To Enlarge
Alpha-humulene 6753-98-6 2,6,6,9-tetramethylc
ycloundeca-1,4,8-tri
ene
C15H24 Click Here To Enlarge
alpha-Pinene 80-56-8 2,7,7-trimethylbicyc
lo[3.1.1]hept-2-ene
C10H16 Click Here To Enlarge
alpha-Terpinene 99-86-5 1-methyl-4-propan-2-
yl-cyclohexa-1,3-die
ne
C10H16 Click Here To Enlarge
alpha-Terpineol 10482-56-1 2-(4-methyl-1-cycloh
ex-3-enyl)propan-2-o
l
C10H18O Click Here To Enlarge
Ascorbic acid Not Available 2-(1,2-dihydroxyethy
l)-4,5-dihydroxy-fur
an-3-one
C6H8O6 Click Here To Enlarge
beta-Carotene Not Available 3,7,12,16-tetramethy
l-1,18-bis(2,6,6-tri
methyl-1-cyclohexeny
l)-octadec a-1,3,5,
7,9,11,13,15,17-nona
ene
C40H56 Click Here To Enlarge
beta-Pinene 23089-32-9 6,6-dimethyl-2-methy
lidene-norpinane
C10H16 Click Here To Enlarge
Betulin Not Available Not Available C30H50O2 Click Here To Enlarge
Borneol 10385-78-1 1,7,7-trimethylnorbo
rnan-2-ol
C10H18O Click Here To Enlarge
Camphor 8022-77-3 1,7,7-trimethylnorbo
rnan-2-one
C10H16O Click Here To Enlarge
Caryophyllene 87-44-5 4,11,11-trimethyl-8-
methylidene-bicyclo[
7.2.0]undec-4-ene
C15H24 Click Here To Enlarge
Citronellal 26489-02-1 3,7-dimethyloct-6-en
al
C10H18O Click Here To Enlarge
Epicatechin 490-46-0 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphen
yl)chroman-3,5,7-tri
ol
C15H14O6 Click Here To Enlarge
Farnesol Not Available 3,7,11-trimethyldode
ca-2,6,10-trien-1-ol
C15H26O Click Here To Enlarge
gamma-Terpinene 99-85-4 1-methyl-4-propan-2-
yl-cyclohexa-1,4-die
ne
C10H16 Click Here To Enlarge
Limonene 9003-73-0 1-methyl-4-prop-1-en
-2-yl-cyclohexene
C10H16 Click Here To Enlarge
Menthol 2216-51-5 5-methyl-2-propan-2-
yl-cyclohexan-1-ol
C10H20O Click Here To Enlarge
Myrcene 2153-31-3 7-methyl-3-methylide
ne-octa-1,6-diene
C10H16 Click Here To Enlarge
Nerolidol 14528-94-0 3,7,11-trimethyldode
ca-1,6,10-trien-3-ol
C15H26O Click Here To Enlarge
p-Cymene Not Available dichlororuthenium;
1-methyl-5,6-dihydro
-4H-pyrimidine;
p-cymene
C15H24Cl2N2Ru Click Here To Enlarge
Rutin Not Available 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphen
yl)-4,5-dihydroxy-3-
[3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-
[(3,4,5-tr ihydroxy
-6-methyl-tetrahydro
pyran-2-yl)oxymethyl
]tetrahydropyran-2-y
l] oxy-chromen-7-on
e trihydrate
C27H36O19 Click Here To Enlarge

Pharmacology

Medicinal Use

In urinary tract diseases, dropsy, digestive maladies, maladies associated with the chills, rheumatism and body aches. Oil of Juniper is given as a diuretic, stomachic, and carminative in indigestion, flatulence, and diseases of the kidney and bladder. The oil mixed with lard is also used in veterinary practice as an application to exposed wounds and prevents irritation from flies. Spirit of Juniper is employed as a stimulating diuretic in cardiac and hepatic dropsy. The fruit is readily eaten by most animals, especially sheep, and to prevent and cure dropsy.

Contraindication

Should not be taken for longer than 5 weeks if kidney inflammation is present and when pregnant.

Reference

Stary, Medicinal Herbs and Plants.


Sharma, Classical Uses of Medicinal Plants.

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