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Home » Raw Herbs » Bulb

Tamarindus indica  L.

   

click to enlarge image

Botanical Name

:

Tamarindus indica L.

English Name

:

Tamarind Tree

Synonym(s)

:

Tamarindus officinalis (Hook), Tamarindus occidentalis, Gaertn.

Family

:

Caesalpiniaceae

 

General Info

Description

A large handsome tree with spreading branches and a thick straight trunk, ash-grey bark, height up to 40 feet. Leaves alternate, abruptly pinnated; leaflets light green and a little hairy, in twelve to fifteen pairs. In cold damp weather and after sunset the leaflets close. Flowers fragrant, yellow-veined, red and purple filaments, in terminal and lateral racemes. Legume oblong, pendulous, nearly linear, curved, somewhat compressed, filled with a firm acid pulp. Bark hard and scabrous, never separates into valves; inside the bark are three fibres, one down, on the upper concave margin, the other two at equal distances from the convex edge. Seeds six to twelve, covered with a shiny smooth brown shell, and inserted into the convex side of the pericarp.

Herb Effects

Antiviral (flower); laxative and reduces fever (fruit pulp); astringent (seed); refrigerants in fevers and as laxatives and carminatives.

Links

Tamarind
Floridata
Imli
PIER
King's American Dispensatory

Chemistry

Active Ingredients

Tartaric and malic acids (fruit and leaf); orientin, iso-orientin, vitexin and iso-vitexin (leaf); tannic acid (seed); acetic acid, alpha-terpineol, citric acid, limonene, safrole (fruit); ascorbic acid, beta-carotene, cinnamaldehyde (flower)

Chemistry of Active Ingredients
Product Categories

Name

CAS#

IUPAC Name

Formula

Structure

Product Categories
Tartaric acid 526-83-0 2,3-dihydroxybutaned
ioic acid
C4H6O6 Click Here To Enlarge
Malic acid Not Available 2-hydroxybutanedioic
acid
C4H6O5 Click Here To Enlarge
Orientin 28608-75-5 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphen
yl)-4,7-dihydroxy-8-
[3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-
(hydroxyme thyl)oxa
n-2-yl]-chromen-5-on
e
C21H20O11 Click Here To Enlarge
Vitexin 521-33-5 4,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-h
ydroxyphenyl)-8-[3,4
,5-trihydroxy-6-(hyd
roxymethyl )oxan-2-
yl]-chromen-5-one
C21H20O10 Click Here To Enlarge
Tannic acid 1401-55-4 Not Available Not Available Click Here To Enlarge
Acetic acid 77671-22-8 acetic acid C2H4O2 Click Here To Enlarge
alpha-Terpineol 10482-56-1 2-(4-methyl-1-cycloh
ex-3-enyl)propan-2-o
l
C10H18O Click Here To Enlarge
Citric acid Not Available 2-hydroxypropane-1,2
,3-tricarboxylic
acid
C6H8O7 Click Here To Enlarge
Limonene 9003-73-0 1-methyl-4-prop-1-en
-2-yl-cyclohexene
C10H16 Click Here To Enlarge
Ascorbic acid Not Available 2-(1,2-dihydroxyethy
l)-4,5-dihydroxy-fur
an-3-one
C6H8O6 Click Here To Enlarge
beta-Carotene Not Available 3,7,12,16-tetramethy
l-1,18-bis(2,6,6-tri
methyl-1-cyclohexeny
l)-octadec a-1,3,5,
7,9,11,13,15,17-nona
ene
C40H56 Click Here To Enlarge
Cinnamaldehyde Not Available 3-phenylprop-2-enal C9H8O Click Here To Enlarge

Pharmacology

Medicinal Use

As an astringent in bowel complaints, to weaken the action of resinous cathartics (pulp); in correcting bilious disorders, for rheumatism (plant); used in subacid infusions, and a decoction is said to destroy worms in children, and is also useful for jaundice, and externally as a wash for sore eyes and ulcers (leaves)In some forms of sore throat the fruit has been found of service; for asthma (bark).

Contraindication

Chloroquine bioavailability in healthy men is lowered by Aradaib (Tamarindus indica), Karkadi (Hibiscus sabdarifa) & Lemon (Citrus limetta) compared with water. AUC=2.6, 2.2 & 2.4 & 7.5 mg.h/L; Tmax=3.2, 2.6, 2.5 & 3.0 h (Mahmoud et al., 1994).

Reference

Chandel et al., Biodiversity in Medicinal and Aromatic Plants in India.


Bentley and Trimen, Medicinal Plants

Johnson T. CRC Ethnobotany Desk Reference (www.herbweb.com/herbage).

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