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Home » Raw Herbs » Fruits

Syzygium aromaticum  (L.) MERRILL & PERRY.

   

click to enlarge image

Botanical Name

:

Syzygium aromaticum (L.) MERRILL & PERRY.

English Name

:

Cloves, zanziber redheads

Synonym(s)

:

Caryophyllus aromaticus Linn., Eugenia caryophyllata Thun. Eugenia aromatica Kuntze.

Family

:

Myrtaceae

 

General Info

Description

A large shrub or medium sized tree with pyramidal or conical crown 9 to 12 m. high and sometimes taller. The main stem is erect and often forking at a height of 1.5 to 1.8 m. The bark is smooth and grey. Leaves lanceolate, in pairs, acute at both ends, 7.5 to 12.3X 2.5 to 3.75 cm. in size, gland-dotted and fragrant. Flower buds borne in small clusters at the ends of branches, greenish, turning pink at the time of maturity and aromatic. Drupes, fleshy, dark pink, 2.5 cm. long x 1.5 cm. thick. Seeds oblong, soft, grooved on one side and 1.5 cm. Iong.

Herb Effects

Antiviral, stimulates the secretion of gastric juices. aphrodisiac and carminative (bud); antiinflammatory (plant); antibacterial, rubefacient, counter-irritant, antispasmodic, aids in stabilizing blood circulation, regulates body temperature and analgesic.

Links

Herbal Monograph
Herb Information

Chemistry

Active Ingredients

Acetyl-eugenol, benzaldehyde, caryophyllene, caryophyllene-oxide, cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, gallic acid, kaempferol, maslinic acid, methyl-eugenol, methyl-salicylate, oleanolic acid, riboflavin, thiamin, trans-anethole, vanillin (flower); ascorbic acid, beta-carotene (bark); benzyl-acetate, benzyl-alcohol, beta-sitosterol, carvone, ellagic acid, isoeugenol, methyl-chavicol, rhamnetin, stigmasterol, tannin (plant)

Chemistry of Active Ingredients
Product Categories

Name

CAS#

IUPAC Name

Formula

Structure

Product Categories
Benzaldehyde 100-52-7 benzaldehyde C7H6O Click Here To Enlarge
Caryophyllene 87-44-5 4,11,11-trimethyl-8-
methylidene-bicyclo[
7.2.0]undec-4-ene
C15H24 Click Here To Enlarge
Caryophyllene oxide 32095-03-7 Not Available C15H24O Click Here To Enlarge
Cinnamaldehyde Not Available 3-phenylprop-2-enal C9H8O Click Here To Enlarge
Eugenol 97-53-0 2-methoxy-4-prop-2-e
nyl-phenol
C10H12O2 Click Here To Enlarge
Gallic acid 149-91-7 3,4,5-trihydroxybenz
oic acid
C7H6O5 Click Here To Enlarge
Kaempferol 80714-53-0 3-[3-[4,5-dihydroxy-
6-(hydroxymethyl)-3-
[3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-
(hydroxyme thyl)oxa
n-2-yl]oxy-oxan-2-yl
]oxy-4,5-dihydroxy-6
-(hydroxymethyl)oxan
-2 -yl]oxy-4,5-dihy
droxy-2-(4-hydroxyph
enyl)-chromen-7-one
C33H40O21 Click Here To Enlarge
Maslinic acid 4373-41-5 10,11-dihydroxy-2,2,
6a,6b,9,9,12a-heptam
ethyl-1,3,4,5,6,6a,7
,8,8a,10,1 1,12,13,
14b-tetradecahydropi
cene-4a-carboxylic
acid
C30H48O4 Click Here To Enlarge
Methyl salicylate 8024-54-2 methyl
2-hydroxybenzoate
C8H8O3 Click Here To Enlarge
Oleanolic acid 508-02-1 10-hydroxy-2,2,6a,6b
,9,9,12a-heptamethyl
-1,3,4,5,6,6a,7,8,8a
,10,11,12,
13,14b-tetradecahydr
opicene-4a-carboxyli
c acid
C30H48O3 Click Here To Enlarge
Riboflavin Not Available Not Available C17H21N4O9P Click Here To Enlarge
Thiamin 59-43-8 2-[3-[(4-amino-2-met
hyl-pyrimidin-5-yl)m
ethyl]-4-methyl-1-th
ia-3-azoni acyclope
nta-2,4-dien-5-yl]et
hanol
C12H17N4OS+ Click Here To Enlarge
trans-Anethole 57131-42-7 1-methoxy-4-[(E)-pro
p-1-enyl]benzene
C10H12O Click Here To Enlarge
Vanillin 8014-42-4 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-
benzaldehyde
C8H8O3 Click Here To Enlarge
Ascorbic Acid Not Available 2-(1,2-dihydroxyethy
l)-4,5-dihydroxy-fur
an-3-one
C6H8O6 Click Here To Enlarge
beta-Carotene Not Available 3,7,12,16-tetramethy
l-1,18-bis(2,6,6-tri
methyl-1-cyclohexeny
l)-octadec a-1,3,5,
7,9,11,13,15,17-nona
ene
C40H56 Click Here To Enlarge
Benzyl acetate 21982-87-6 trimethyl-(2-phenoxy
ethyl)ammonium
C11H18NO+ Click Here To Enlarge
Benzyl alcohol 185532-71-2 phenylmethanol C7H8O Click Here To Enlarge
Beta-sitosterol 5779-62-4 17-(5-ethyl-6-methyl
-heptan-2-yl)-10,13-
dimethyl-2,3,4,7,8,9
,11,12,14,
C29H50O Click Here To Enlarge
Carvone 53763-73-8 2-methyl-5-prop-1-en
-2-yl-cyclohex-2-en-
1-one
C10H14O Click Here To Enlarge
Ellagic acid Not Available Not Available C14H6O8 Click Here To Enlarge
Isoeugenol 97-54-1 2-methoxy-4-prop-1-e
nyl-phenol
C10H12O2 Click Here To Enlarge
Methyl chavicol 77525-18-9 1-methoxy-4-prop-2-e
nyl-benzene
C10H12O Click Here To Enlarge
Rhamnetin 90-19-7 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphen
yl)-3,4-dihydroxy-7-
methoxy-chromen-5-on
e
C16H12O7 Click Here To Enlarge
Stigmasterol 4736-55-4 17-(4-ethyl-1,5-dime
thyl-hex-2-enyl)-10,
13-dimethyl-1,2,4,5,
6,7,8,9,10 ,11,12,1
3,14,15,16,17-hexade
cahydrocyclopenta[a]
phenanthren-3-one
C29H48O Click Here To Enlarge
Tannin 1401-55-4 Not Available C27H22O18 Click Here To Enlarge

Pharmacology

Medicinal Use

As an analgesic and for sensitive teeth and cavities (of the teeth) (essential oil); indigestion, gastric irritation, alleviating nausea and in halitosis (bud); respiratory maladies, sore throat, headache and coryza, for removal of stain in teeth, as salivary stimulator in sublingual pharmaceutical compositions, for treating circulatory diseases such as posttraumatic oedema.

Contraindication

High doses of the clove oil may cause stomach upset when ingested. When used externally, it may develop a rash.

Reference

Chandel et al., Biodiversity in Medicinal and Aromatic Plants in India.


Grieve M. A Modern Herbal (1931) (www.botanical.com)

Johnson T. CRC Ethnobotany Desk Reference (www.herbweb.com/herbage).

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