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Home » Health Remedies » Pulmonary disorders»Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

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Health Remedies - Asthma

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Asthma is a chronic disease that affects the airways. It is also called as bronchial asthma. In this condition, the inside walls of the airways become sore and swollen. Asthma signs and symptoms can range from mild to severe. Common symptoms of asthma include Coughing (especially at night), wheezing, shortness of breath and tightness, pain, or pressure in chest.

The important trigger factors for asthma are indoor allergens (for example house dust mites in bedding, carpets and stuffed furniture, pollution and pet dander), outdoor allergens (such as pollens and moulds), tobacco smoke and chemical irritants. Other causes include cold air, extreme emotional arousal such as anger or fear, physical exercise and certain medications. It is important to avoid asthma triggers - stimuli that irritate and inflame the airways, while treating asthma.

Useful herbs

Acacia catechu

Leprosy (root decoction. leaf. bark and fruit); in skin diseases and ulcers, chronic diarrhea, bleeding of the uterus and nose, mucosal discharges (such as leucorrhea) and hoarseness, gonorrhea (flowers), rheumatism and tooth ache (root), asthma, bronchitis, chest pain, sore in mouth (plant).

Acacia nilotica

In asthma (gum, bark and leaf); ophthalmia (and other eye problems) and “sexual weakness” (leaf decoction); diabetes, dysentery and diarrhea, bronchitis and skin maladies (bark); headache, urinary problems, sore throat and gonorrhea (leaf); as a toothbrush; Tender growing tops rubbed into a paste with sugar and water act as demulcent in coughs.

Acacia pennata

In fever, headache and other body aches (leaf decoction); indigestion in infants (leaf juice mixed with milk); for treatment of bronchitis, asthma and for stomach complaints (bark); cholera treatment, digestive complaints, relief of headache, body pain, snake bites, and even to cure fish poisoning (boiled tender leaves); for flatulence and to cure stomach pain (root).

Acalypha indica

For cough (leaf extract); bronchitis and pneumonia (plant decoction); skin diseases (leaf); as a vermifuge, in constipation and rheumatism; in asthma, cough, bronchitis and earache (fruit) .

Achyranthes aspera

Asthma and snakebite (root powder); toothache (root); rashes. boils and dropsy (plant); renal dropsy (plant decoction); as an emmenagogue; in hemorrhoids; atrophy; blindness (veterinary); insect bites; cachexia; cataracts; cholera; circumcision; antispasmodic; astringent; odontalgic. The flower-tops are stated to be employed for the treatemtnt of rabies. It is also used in veterinary medicine to expel placenta.

Achyranthes bidentata

In the treatment of aching back and knees and pain of the lower limbs (roots); to treat hypertension, back pains, urine in the blood, menstrual pain, bleeding, lowers blood cholesterol levels and so is used in the treatment of atherosclerosis(herb); toothache, indigestion and asthma (root juice); for pyorrhoea (stem)

Acorus calamus

Asthma, bronchitis, for burns, cancer, catarrh, colds, cough, sore throat, colic, constipation, diarrhea, dysentery, indigestion, epilepsy, fever, flatulence, gangrene poisoning, headache, hemorrhages, nerve problems, odontosis and in parturition.

Acorus gramineus

To bleeding gums (root powder); in the treatment of digestive problems - particularly gastralgia and diarrhoea, cough, bronchial asthma, neurasthenia, depression, epilepsy, body parasites, dermatosis and haemorrhoids(root)

Actaea spicata

Used in snakebite; antispasmodic, cytostatic, emetic, nervine and purgative (root);it is also considered useful in the treatment of nervous disorders and rheumatic fever (Coventry,1923).In India it is used in the treatment of rheumatism, goitre and asthma.

Adhatoda vasica

For asthma and intermittent fever; used also as an expectorant in cases of chronic bronchitis and phthisis. On rheumatic joints, as a counter-irritant on inflammatory swellings, on fresh wounds, urticaria and in neuralgia.

Adiantum pedatum

In the treatment of nasal congestion, asthma, sore throats etc (syrup); in the treatment of ague and fevers (whole plant)

Aegle marmelos

In ophthalmia and jaundice (leaf); in constipation, cholera, dysentery, diarrhea and intestinal ulcers (fruit); leucoderma, to alleviate asthma (leaf decoction); in diabetes (root bark); in scurvy (fruit pulp).

Aesculus glabra

For asthma, with continual dyspnoea, non-paroxysmal, tightness in the chest and about the heart, bronchial irritation with constriction, sense of constriction, tightness or uneasiness in the rectum, accompanied or not with hemorrhoids, intestinal irritation with constriction and colicky pains near the umbilicus, rheumatism and piles

Ailanthus excelsa

Curing wounds and sores (bark decoction); on rashes (leaf and bark); to treat asthma and bronchitis, and as an astringent for diarrhoea and dysentery.

Albizia lebbeck

For boils (flower); in leprosy, asthma, skin diseases, leucoderma, sprains, wounds, neuralgia, nightblindness, diarrhoea (stem bark).

Alliaria petiolata

To promote sweating and to treat bronchitis, asthma and eczema, effective in relieving the itching caused by bites and stings (leaves) Externally, they are as an antiseptic poultice on ulcers. The juice of the plant has an inhibitory effect on Bacillus pyocyaneum and on gram-negative bacteria of the typhoid-paratyphoid-enteritis group.

Allium ampeloprasum

To ease the pain of bites and stings and in asthma and high cholesterol (bulb); for ringworm infections, candida and vaginitis (plant)

Allium sativum

Arteriosclerosis, arthritis, asthma, athlete's foot; bladder, kidney and ear (including earache) ailments, boils, bronchitis, cancer, canker sores, common cold, corns, cough, dysmenorrhea, indigestion, fever, infections, inflammations, influenza and leukemia.

Aloe vera

As a tonic, in amenorrhea, asthma, boils, bruises, burns (including those from radiation), stomach cancer, common cold, cough, digestive disorders, fever, hemorrhages, hysteria, inflammation, eye problems, jaundice, cirrhosis, hepatitis, stomach ulcers, colitis, wound, scald, dry skin, conjunctivitis, psoriasis, hair fall, rosacea, warts and eczema; prevents opportunistic infections in cases of HIV and AIDS.

Alstonia scholaris

In tuberculosis and as a tonic and laxative (bark decoction); in skin disorders, in dysentery, chronic diarrhea and fever, in heart diseases, asthma and to stop bleeding of wounds; for deafness (bark); in leprosy and dyspepsia (fresh bark juice); for beri-beri and liver congestion (decoction of young leaf); to ulcers, sores, tumours and in rheumatic pain, and is used for curing toothache, an antidote for Antiaris- poisoning (the milky juice or latex).

Althaea officinalis

Inflammations of the upper respiratory tract and mouth, coughs and as a poutice for edema; less popularly used in asthma (infusion), gastrointestinal problems and in colic (with diarrhea).

Ammi majus

In leukoderma and psoriasis (plant decoction); in asthma and angina (Seed infusion); in toothache (Seed decoction)

Amorphophallus campanulatus

Asthma, dysentery and hemorrhoids (corm decoction); to treat acute rheumatism.

Angelica glauca

In the treatment of dyspepsia and constipation, for asthma, bronchitis, anaemia, coughs, indigestion, arthritis and colds (plant); for cancer (root).

Anthemis cotula

To induce menstruation and was traditionally used to treat supposedly hysterical conditions related to the uterus, as a poultice on piles or to draw splinters out of the body, and can also be applied to the bath water (herb); rheumatism, epilepsy, asthma, colds and fevers (infusion); onto insect stings (leaves)

Apocynum cannabinum

To treat syphilis, rheumatism, intestinal worms, fever, asthma, and dysentery (plant).

Aquilaria agallocha

In rheumatism, gout, diarrhea and ending vomiting (bark); in diarrhoea, dysentery, gout, rheumatism, asthma and paralysis.

Aralia nudicaulis

In the treatment of pulmonary diseases, cough, asthma, rheumatism, stomach aches and cystitis (root); used as a poultice in treating rheumatism, sores, burns, itchy skin, ulcers and skin problems such as eczema (root paste)

Aralia racemosa

In the treatment of pulmonary diseases, asthma, rheumatism etc (herb); to sores, burns, itchy skin, ulcers, swellings etc (root/fruit).Externally it is used as a poultice in treating rheumatism and skin problems such as eczema.

Aristolochia debilis

In the treatment of asthma and various other chest complaints, haemorrhoids and hypertension (fruit and capsule); in the treatment of snakebite, gastric disorders involving bloating, and is clinically effective against hypertension (root)

Artemisia maritima

Stomach problems, measles and sporadic fever (stem decoction); asthma (plant); liver damage, for anthelmintic purposes.

Artemisia nilagirica

Used in parturition, in measles, skin diseases, epilepsy, nervous diseases, asthma, peptic ulcers, blood purifier and as an antihelmintic (stem and flower); debility (flower and leaf).

Artemisia vulgaris

Used to bring on delayed or suppressed menstrual cycle and helps to regulate menstrual cycles (plant); in the treatment of nervous and spasmodic affections, sterility, functional bleeding of the uterus, dysmenorrhoea, asthma and diseases of the brain (leaves and flowering tops); Used in Homeopathy to treat epilepsy, petit mal, hysteria, sleepwalking, dizziness and prolapsed uterus.

Artocarpus heterophyllus

To relieve biliousness (seed starch); promotes healing of abscesses, snakebite and glandular swellings (latex mixed with vinegar); on wounds (heated leaves); for asthma, fever and diarrhea (root extract); in dysopia, opthalmities and pharyngitis (latex)

Asarum canadense

Chronic chest complaints, asthma, coughs, colds, dropsy, painful spasms of the bowels and stomach, scanty or painful menstruation, infantile convulsions (root); applied as a poultice to wounds and inflammations, whilst a decoction or salve is applied to sores (fresh leaves)

Atropa acuminata

As a sedative and narcotic (root and leaf); gastrointestinal hypermotility, hyper-secretion, peptic ulcer, spastic constipation, spastic dysmenorrhoea, nocturnal enuresis, bronchial asthma and whooping cough (leaves); sunstroke and painful menstruation (plant); as specific antidote to opium and muscarine poisoning (berries).

Azadirachta indica

To treat skin diseases, rheumatism, stomach worms, gastric ulcers, urinary discharges, tumours, piles, toothache, arthritis, leprosy and sprains; used in Ayurveda practice to relieve cough, asthma, piles, tumours and urinary discharges.

Baliospermum montanum

Rheumatism (seed oil); snakebite antidote (seed); to treat piles, anaemia, jaundice, skin diseases, cyst, as purgative, wound, conjunctivitis, diabetes, numbness, dropsy, general anasarca, asthma.

Bambusa arundinacea

It is used for stomach and respiratory disorders, menstrual disorders, intestinal worms, wounds, nausea, vomiting, piles, in cough, consumption, asthma and fever. In combination with other astringent medicines it is given in chronic dysentery and internal hemorrhages. The most efficacious application for dislodgement of worms in ulcers is a poultice made by pounding the young shoots of the bamboo. The decoction of the joints is supposed to have an action on the uterus, and is used by females after delivery to cause free flow of the lochial discharge. The same part of the plant pounded with water is applied to inflamed joints. The juice of the flower is dropped in the ear for earache, and in deafness. An ointment from the root is a folk remedy for cirrhosis and hard tumors, especially tumors of the abdomen, liver, spleen and stomach.

Bixa orellana

As a topical antiseptic for ear, eye, and skin infections, for digestive problems, prostate and urinary infections, hypertension and high cholesterol levels (leaves); to tone, balance, and strengthen liver function and for hepatitis and liver inflammation/pain, high cholesterol, skin care and skin anti-aging, sinusitis, constipation, relieves stomachaches and asthma (seeds); in healing of minor wounds and burns, prevents scaring and blisters (pulp and oil); treatment of jaundice, diabetes, influenza, dysentry, venereal diseases (root).

Blepharis persica

Impotency and rheumatism (plant); headache (leaf paste); in wounds, ulcers, nasal haemorrhage, asthma, throat inflammation, ascites, and disorders of liver and spleen, and as a purgative (leaves).

Boerhavia diffusa

To treat anaemia, oedema, internal abscess, calculi, eye diseases, oedema during pregnancy, haemoptysis, for inducing sleep, fever, rheumatic ailments, difficult labour, vaginal pain, rejuvinative, asthma, oedema, anaemia, jaundice, ascites, anasarca, scanty urine and internal inflammation. It is also an antidote to snake poisoning.

Borassus flabellifer

In skin troubles and blood purification (bark); in dysentery (decoction); useful in inflammatory affections, ulcers and dropsy, in digestive troubles and sometimes in chronic gonorrhoea; in diabetes, as a tonic to asthmatic and anaemic patients, and in Hansen's disease (juice).

Brassica oleracea

Hemorrhoids, as a poultice to cleanse infected wounds and skin diseases, to lower blood sugar,in the treatment of asthma, gout and rheumatism (leaf); increases secretion of gastric juices (leaf and seed).

Bryonia dioica

In the treatment of various inflammatory conditions, bronchial complaints, asthma, intestinal ulcers, hypertension and arthritis (root)

Caesalpinia bonduc

As a blood purifier and in asthma (seed); in leucorrhea, as a local application for sores (bark); intermittent fever and for diabetes (roots); in menstrual disorders in tribal areas of Madhya Pradesh, India (seed powder).

Caesalpinia crista

Uterine tonic after child-birth (powdered leaves); in eye diseases (stem and roasted fruits); to cure liver disorders (powdered seeds with sugar and goat's milk); as tonic in intermittent fevers, asthma and colic (kernals)

Calotropis gigantea

Toothache and laxative (plant juice); altering secretion of stomach acids, in the treatment of skin diseases, asthma, elephantiasis and leprosy (flowers); paralysis, arthralgia, swellings and intermittent fevers (leaves). The tribals of South Rajasthan apply latex in the treatment of Guinea worm disease (Joshi, 1991).

Calotropis procera

Dysentery, diarrhea, indigestion, reducing fever, leprosy, skin diseases and eczema (root bark); cough, cold and asthma (flower and root bark); toothache (latex); rheumatism and syphilis; to relieve stomach pain (leaves); cures piles, asthma, cholera and wounds (flowers).

Cannabis sativa

In hydrocele (bark); anorexia, urinary tract problems (including bladder inflammation), cancer and tumors, common cold, corns, cough, depression and as a psychological aid, glaucoma, gonorrhea, nausea, for sores, varicose veins, gout and rheumatism, in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal, anthrax, asthma, blood poisoning, constipation caused by debility or fluid retention

Capparis decidua

Useful in cough, asthma and inflammations (root bark); as a poultice on boils and swellings, to relieve toothache (tender leaves); in remittent fevers and rheumatism (stem bark); to animals for stomach disturbances (decoction of ariel parts).

Capparis tomentosa

To cure madness, snakebite, headache, impotence, sterility in women (plant); for asthma (leaf); for chest pains (bark)

Capsicum annuum

For atony of the intestines and stomach, indigestion, dipsomania, catarrh, relieving chronic congestion, relaxed uvula (tincture powder), as a powerful external rubefacient (without blistering), in lumbago, rheumatism and neuralgia. It is taken internally in the treatment of the cold stage of fevers, debility in convalescence or old age, varicose veins, asthma and digestive problems. Externally it is used in the treatment of sprains, unbroken chilblains, neuralgia, pleurisy etc. It is an effective sea-sickness preventative. It is useful for Bursitis, Diabetic neuropathy, Osteoarthritis, Psoriasis, Rheumatoid arthritis, Shingles (herpes zoster) and postherpetic neuralgia. Cayenne pepper exerts a number of beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system.

Cassia auriculata

Diabetes (seed); skin diseases (root); to treat sore throat, enemas, rheumatism and eye diseases (bark); to treat chronic purulent opthalmia and conjunctivitis, gout, gonorrhoea, dysentery, diabetes cough and asthma; to treat urinary disorders and diabetes (flowers).

Cassia occidentalis

Snakebite antidote (root); skin diseases (seed and leaf); digestive problems such as constipation, indigestion, gastric pains in children; in cough, asthma and whooping cough, convulsions and in heart diseases (seeds).

Catalpa bignonioides

On wounds and abrasions (leaves); in the treatment of asthma and bronchitis and is applied externally to wounds (seed)

Ceanothus americanus

To treat fevers and problems of the mucous membranes such as catarrh and sore throats (root, root bark); for asthma, bronchitis and coughs (root); in the treatment of bronchial complaints including asthma and whooping cough, dysentery, sore throats, tonsillitis, haemorrhoids etc (plant); for cancer and venereal sores (bark)

Cecropia pachystachya

For asthma, upper respiratory problems (coughs, bronchitis, COPD, emphysema, pulmonary sarcoidosis), high blood pressure and Parkinson's disease.

Ceiba pentandra

To treat gonorrhea (leaves); to reduce fever and to invigorate (roots); used to promote urination, to treat gonorrhea, to reduce fever, and to treat diarrhea and asthma (bark); in gravels (decoction of plant); in syphilis (decoction of leaves); to treat asthma and coughs (juice of leaves); in fever, to promote libido, in dysentery, menorrhagia, and diabetes (plant exudate).

Centella asiatica

For healing wounds (plant extract); in tuberculosis and leprosy (plant decoction); improves intellectual capacity, concentration and memory of children, in skin diseases, asthma, bronchitis, gastric problems, leucorrhea, catarrh, as an antidote in cholera; on boils and tumours (plant paste); to cure severe headache, to prevent and cure urinary tract infections and the growth of kidney stones (leaf juice).

Centipeda minima

As a vermifuge and in paralysis (plant and seed); head colds (leaf and seed powder); for rhinitis, sinusitis, nasopharyngeal tumour, asthma and cold (herb)

Chelidonium majus

In diseases of the internal, digestive organs, periodontal disease and for warts; in ancient times, it was used for eye cataracts. To treat warts (latex); in the treatment of bronchitis, whooping cough, asthma, jaundice, gallstones and gallbladder pains (plant)

Cissus quadrangularis

Bone healing (plant and stem); asthma (stem); stimulating gastric acid secretion (young shoots and leaf); irregular menstruation, dyspepsia, indigestion, piles, worms, gout, syphilis, venereal diseases, leucorrhoea and anorexia.

Citrus medica

In kidney stones, vomiting, as a laxative and anthelmintic (root); as a tonic and stimulant (fruit), to treat tastelessness due to fever, intrinsic haemorrhage, anaemia, jaundice, hiccough, asthma, vomiting, pain in cardiac region, colic, pox, calculus and gravels, dental caries, for easy delivery, foul smell in flatus, erysipelas, headache, anorexia during pregnancy and earache.

Clerodendrum indicum

Asthma, cough and scrofula (root bark); eliminating intestinal worms (leaf). Leaf juice mixed with butterfat is applied externally to herpetic eruptions and pemphigus. Its resin is employed in syphilitic rheumatism.

Clerodendrum serratum

Asthma, dyspepsia, anorexia, flatulence, helminthiasis, tubercular glands, leucoderma (root) and bronchitis (root and plant decoction). Leaves as external application for cephalagia and opthalmia.

Clitoria ternatea

To treat oedema, mental disorder, goiter, vitiligo, snake-poisoning, toothache, eye disease, as aphrodisiac, filaria, leprosy (plant juice); dysentery, severe bronchitis, asthma, consumption, ascites and abdominal enlargement.

Cochlospermum religiosum

Stimulant (flower and leaf); as sedative, for cough, gonorrhea, syphilis and asthma (gum).

Cocos nucifera

In diseases of the uterus, cooling and diuretic (Immature fruit); in debility, incipient phthisis and cachetic affections (fresh milk); for a wide range of physical disorders including asthma, cold, constipation, dysentery, earache, erysipelas, fever, flu, gingivitis, gonorrhea, jaundice, rash, scabies, syphilis, toothache, tuberculosis etc.

Coffea arabica

For heart palpitations, narcotic poisoning, sporadic fever, cough and asthma

Coleus amboinicus

As a poultice for scorpion, for renal calculi, chronic cough and asthma and centipede stings (leaf). Leaf infusion, decoction, or syrup is reported to be useful in cases of epilepsy, convulsions, asthma, bronchitis, chronic coughs, sore throat, and congestive heart failure.

Coleus forskohlii

Stomach problems (leaf) and as a tonic (root). The whole plant is used to treat dyspepsia, indigestion, dysentery, vomiting, thirst fever, dermatitis, psoriasis, ulcer bleeding diseases, obesity, asthma and pediatric disorders like diarrhoea, thirst, vomiting and fever.

Commiphora myrrha

Athlete's foot, bed sores, mouth sores, pyorrhea, throat ailments, ulcers, wounds, in perfumery, mouth washes, dentrifice.in vitiated conditions of vata, pitta and kapha, stomatitis, dyspepsia, helminthiasis, amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoes and other menstrual disorders, bronchitis, asthma, phthisis, spongy gum, pharyngodynia, rheumatoid arthritis, sciatica, inflammations, strangury and skin diseases.

Costus speciosus

In gout; as an antiinflammatory, stimulant and anthelmintic (rhizome); also beneficial in asthma, anaemia, bronchitis, leprosy, flatulence, constipation, fever, skin diseases and inflammation. It is also used for carcino­genic tumours.

Cressa cretica

As a tonic, aphrodisiac and expectorant (plant decoction); used for the treatment of leprosy, asthma, biliousness, urinary discharges, external inflammation and pains.

Curculigo orchioides

Hemorrhoids, asthma, jaundice, as an aphrodisiac and a tonic (rhizome); in piles, debility and impotence (roots)

Curcuma amada

As a carminative, increasing the secretion of gastric juices, bruises and sprains (rhizome); biliousness, various skin related ailments, bronchitis, asthma, hiccup, inflammations etc (plant)

Curcuma longa

Relieving pain associated with purulent ophthalmia (rhizome decoction), for abscesses, amenorrhea, anemia, asthma, colds, jaundice, conjunctivitis, purifying blood, as a tonic to the stomach, diarrhea, dysentery, gonorrhea, kidney stones and reducing fever.

Datura metel

Ophthalmia (seed decoction); asthma (flower); swolen areas and in rheumatism (leaf); to treat fever, worms, cracks in feet, filaria, chronic coryza, rabies, alopecia, skin diseases, boils, pain in breast and insanity (root, fruit and leaves); in the treatment of epilepsy, hysteria, insanity, heart diseases, fever with catarrh, diarrhoea, skin diseases and asthma (plant).

Datura stramonium

For boils and testicle enlargement (leaf); relieving pain and headaches (roasted leaves); earache (flower); asthma (inhalation of burning leaves) and other pulmonary and respiratory ailments (such as pneumonia, cough and severe chest colds); used internally in the treatment of asthma and Parkinson's disease, excess causes giddiness, dry mouth, hallucinations and coma (plant); externally, as a poultice or wash in the treatment of fistulas, abscesses wounds and severe neuralgia (plant).

Dendrophthoe falcata

As an abortifacient (stem); brain tonic and in skin diseases (plant); menstrual problems, wounds and asthma (bark); is used to treat wounds, as emmenagogue and as a remedy for consumption, asthma and mania. The lukewarm leaf juice is used as an eardrop to cure earache.

Descurainia sophia

To ease the pain of toothache, for chronic coughs, hoarseness and ulcerated sore throats, asthma (plant); asthma, fevers, bronchitis, oedema, dysentery, sciatica, on burns and sores (seed)

Desmodium adscendens

For(lower) back pain, asthma and allergies

Desmodium gangeticum

Diarrhea and to prepare "dasmula koatha" (root); asthma (root and plant); cough and fever (plant). Used to treat haemorrhoids, bronchitis, cardiopathy, anorexia, dyspepsia, inflammations.

Digitalis lanata

To treat dropsy, asthma, edema or palpitations, has a profound tonic effect upon a diseased heart, enabling the heart to beat more slowly, powerfully and regularly without requiring more oxygen, stimulates the flow of urine which lowers the volume of the blood and lessens the load on the heart

Digitalis purpurea

Should be taken under close scrutiny because of its toxic properties; for mainly heart disease but also palpitations, maladies of the kidney, wounds, burns, asthma, edema, fever, mental disorders, neuralgia and abdominal tumors. Used as myocardial stimulant in congested heart failure, auricular flutter and rapid auricular fibrillation.

Dioscorea batatas

Stimulates the stomach and spleen and has a tonic effect on the lungs and kidneys (plant); in the treatment of tiredness, weight loss, poor appetite, poor digestion, chronic diarrhoea, asthma, dry coughs, frequent or uncontrollable urination, diabetes, emotional instability, to ulcers, boils and abscesses (tuber); to treat snakebites and scorpion stings (leaf juice)

Dioscorea bulbifera

Syphilis, hemorrhoids,ulcers and dysentery (tuber); as contraceptives and in the treatment of various disorders of the genitary organs as well as in a host of other diseases such as asthma and arthritis.

Dioscorea deltoidea

Reducing fever (leaf); included in preparations of certain steroidal drugs such as cortisone, used to treat asthma and arthritis (rhizome).

Dioscorea japonica

For diarrhoea, enteritis, enuresis and spermatorrhoea (tubers); as contraceptives and in the treatment of various disorders of the genitary organs as well as in a host of other diseases such as asthma and arthritis (roots)

Dioscorea tokoro

For desensitization, arthritis, rheumatism, prostatitis, as contraceptives and in the treatment of various disorders of the genitary organs as well as in a host of other diseases such as asthma and arthritis (root)

Dioscorea villosa

As contraceptives and in the treatment of various disorders of the genitary organs as well as in a host of other diseases such as asthma and arthritis (roots); for bilious colic, it is especially helpful in treating the nausea of pregnant women and has been used to ease the pain of childbirth, arthritis, irritable bowel syndrome, gastritis, gall bladder complaints, painful menstruation etc (plant)

Dipteryx odorata

To bathe fevered patients (bark); used for snakebites, cuts, contusions, coughs, asthma, mouth sores, rheumatism and as a shampoo in hair loss (seeds); for earaches and ear infections (seed oil)

Dolichos uniflorus

Measles, smallpox, burns, sores and tumors (plant); menstrual problems (plant decoction); kidney stones (seed). Ayurveda uses decoction of seed in leucorrhoea, menstrual troubles, bleeding during pregnancy, colic caused by wind, piles, rheumatism, heamorrhagic disease and for intestinal worms. Soup prepared from seeds is beneficial in enlarged liver and spleen. Tribal practices use the parts of the plant for dysuria, sores, tumours, burns, adenitis, fistula ani, intercostal neuralgia, pleurisy, piles, hiccups, abdominal lump, bronchial asthma,pneumonia, prolapsus ani, menstrual complaints, piles, colic, epistaxis, flatulence, ophthalmia, ulcers,urinary troubles and kidney stone.

Dorema ammoniacum

In the treatment of chronic bronchitis, asthma and catarrh, for swellings of the joints and indolent tumours, catarrh, leucorrhoea, in the headache resulting from disease of the frontal sinuses, in affections of the optic nerve, in catarrhal affections of the throat, nasal passages, eyes, ears and stomach, mucous diarrhoea, to indolent buboes, white swelling, tumor of the joints, chronic glandular enlargement, and other indolent swellings.

Emblica officinalis

To treat fever, lack of appetite, piles, worms, anaemia, jaundice, intrinsic haemorrhage, hoarseness of voice, hiccough, cough, fainting, heart diseases, vomiting, burning sensation, abdominal pain, gastritis, dyspepsia, obesity, leprosy, rheumatism, erysipelas, chicken-pox, greying of hair, hair loss, diabetes, suppression of urine, leucorrhoea, burning sensation in female genitals, amenorrhea, eye diseases, for promoting intellect and to improve memory, as rejuvenative, and aphrodisiac (promotes spermatogenesis and in premature ejaculation) (fruit and seed). Local systems of medicine employ it for fever, indigestion, bronchitis, asthma, constipation, headache, liver complaint, diabetes, dysentery, ophthalmic disorders, nerve tonic, cholera, diarrhoea, nasal haemorrhage, cystitis, oedema and leucorrhoea.It has expectorant, antioxidant, anticancerous properties.

Ephedra gerardiana

Asthma problems with allergies and bronchitis (plant); rheumatism, urinary maladies and headaches; for controlling asthmatic attack (liquid extract)

Ephedra sinica

In the treatment of asthma, hay fever and allergic complaints; in the treatment of night sweating and spontaneous sweating (root); to treat asthma, allergic rhinitis, catarrh, upper respiratory infections such as pharyngitis, sinusitis and laryngitis, colds, influenza and as a general stimulant (dried aerial parts)

Eucalyptus globulus

In rheumatism, asthma, spasmodic throat troubles, increases cardiac action, chronic bronchitis, skin diseases and for burns (essential oil of leaf and aerial part); in sporadic fevers (alcohol extract of bark and leaf); alleviating spasms (leaf); for relieving coughs and colds, sore throats and other infections (leaves essential oil); in the treatment of diarrhoea and bladder inflammation, externally it is applied to cuts etc (resin); in the form of a tincture in asthma and chronic bronchitis (dried leaves).

Euphorbia antiquorum

Syphilis, bronchitis, asthma, anasarca, dropsy and whitlow (plant); used as external application in cutaneous affections, rheumatism, toothache and ulcers. Its stem-decoction is beneficial in gout and nervous diseases.

Euphorbia hirta

In dysentery (latex), asthma, bronchitis, bruises, catarrh, colic, conjunctivitis, cough, as a depurifying agent, dermatosis, rashes, abnormal growths, fever, flu, fractures (veterinary), gonorrhea, headache, hypertension, indigestion, itching and measles.

Evolvulus alsinoides

In dysentery, asthma, bronchitis, reducing fever, as a vermifuge and brain tonic, febrifuge, useful in internal haemorrhages, malarial fever, as blood purifier (decoction), in syphilis and scrofula.

Fagonia cretica

Fever, thirst, vomiting, dysentery, asthma, urinary discharges, liver trouble, dropsy, delirium, typhoid, toothache, stomach troubles, skin diseases and protects against acquiring smallpox(plant).

Ferula asafoetida

Nervine stimulant, digestive agent and a sedative,excellent for asthma, bronchitis, whooping-cough, hysteria,impotency, woman and children's ailments,gastroenteritis, for depressed circulation and intestinal function. For respiratory problems and as a circulatory stimulant, lowering blood pressure and thinning the blood.

Ferula foetida

In the treatment of hysteria, some nervous conditions, bronchitis, asthma and whooping cough

Ferula narthex

It is used in the treatment of asthma, whooping cough, flatulent colic, and in pneumonia and bronchitis in children. The leaves are carminative and diaphoretic. The plant is identified as a potential contraceptive.

Foeniculum vulgare

Spleen, kidney and chest diseases, gastrointestinal problems, eye and eyelid inflammations and medicine for cattle (fruit); colic (of infants) and kills hookworm (oil); as an emmenagogue, edema, rheumatism and asthma (essential seed oil).

Fritillaria roylei

For the disease of the eye and all women's diseases. Used in the treatment of TB, asthma, bronchitis, burns and stomach pains.

Garuga pinnata

In asthma (leaf) and increasing the secretion of gastric juices (fruit); as an eye-drop to cure opacities of the eye (stem juice); to treat dislocated bones and to heal wounds (bark juice); for curing skin diseases (root bark).

Gloriosa superba

Antimalarial, increasing the secretion of gastric juices, laxative and as a tonic (tuber); leprosy and anthelmintic (root); to treat arthritis , piles, boils, for extraction of foreign body, for easy delivery, baldness, scrofula and ear diseases (root powder); effective against paralysis, rheumatism, snake bite, insect bites and leaf-juice effective against lice (root-paste). Various ethnic medical practices across India employ this plant for gout, stomachache,intermittent fevers, wounds, spleen complaints, syphilis, tumours, asthma, cholera, gonorrhoea, leprosy, piles, dropsy, labour pain and for acute spasmodic pain.

Glycyrrhiza glabra

In diabetes, epilepsy, as an antidote, tonic, depurifying agent, treating upper respiratory ailments (such as asthma, bronchitis, cough, hoarseness and sore throat), rheumatism, arthritis, for ulcers and inflammation within the gastrointestinal tract.

Gmelina arborea

In rheumatism and stomach problems (root decoction); gonorrhea and as an anthelmintic (leaf juice); for cough (root decoction and leaf juice); making prosthetics (wood); increasing the secretion of gastric juices and as a tonic (bark); in fever (root decoction); for headache, anasarca, asthma, bronchitis, cholera, colic pain, diarrhoea, dropsy, dyspepsia, epilepsy, fever, phthisis, rheumatism, small pox, sore, spleen complaints, syphilis, throat swelling, urticaria, fever, urinary complaints, urticaria, consumption, wounds and leucorrhoea (herb).

Guazuma ulmifolia

To treat diarrhea, hemorrhages and uterine pain (dried bark, fruit); to aid in childbirth, for gastrointestinal pain, asthma, diarrhea and dysentery, wounds, and fevers (fresh bark)

Hedychium spicatum

In liver problems, asthma, bronchitis, as a stimulant, antiinflammatory and for increasing the secretion of gastric juices (rhizome). It is useful in the treatment of liver complaints, and is also used in treating vomiting, diarrhoea, inflammation, pains and snake bite.

Hedyotis diffusa

Biliousness, debility, depression, depurative, asthma, jaundice, internal ulcers, appendicitis and toothache; Used externally for snakebite, boils, abscesses and severe bruising.

Helminthostachys zeylanica

Impotence (rhizome decoction) and mouth blisters (leaf juice); in sciatica (plant); for whooping cough (rhizome); for dysentery, catarrh, asthma and early stages of phthisis.

Hemidesmus indicus

Syphilis, leucorrhea and as a snakebite antidote (root); as a tonic, demulcent, diaphoretic, diuretic, in purifying blood, stomach disorders, fever, gonorrhea, nutritional maladies, kidney stones, gravel and other urinary problems, chronic rheumatism and skin diseases, for relieving inflammation in the eye (milky latex); in asthma, bronchitis, gonorrhea and for sore mouths of children (plant).

Heteropogon contortus

In fever, muscle pain, atrophy and toothache (plant); Asthma (Plant oil)

Hiptage benghalensis

In cutaneous diseases, for scabies (leaves); in chronic rheumatism and asthma (plant); biliousness, cough, burning sensation, thirst and inflammation (leaf and bark)

Hyoscyamus niger

Rheumatism (plant); diabetes and as an analgesic specifically used for pain affecting the urinary tract, especially when due to kidney stones(leaf); dilating the pupil of the eye (plant juice); alleviating spasms (including in the urinary tract), in treating Parkinson's disease, anxiety disorders, asthma, whooping cough, motion sickness, Meniere's syndrome and for inducing sleep. Externally, it is used as an oil to relieve painful conditions such as neuralgia, dental and rheumatic pains. Hyoscyamus has anodyne, narcotic, sedative and mydriatic properties.

Iberis amara

To treat gout, rheumatism and arthritis (plant); for asthma, bronchitis and dropsy (seeds)

Indigofera tinctoria

Epilepsy, lumbago, asthma, leucoderma, hemorrhoids and enlargement of the liver and spleen (plant); in damage to the liver (alcohol extract from plant); convulsions in infants, hysteria, chorea and amenorrhea.

Jasminum arborescens

As an emetic in obstructions of bronchial tubes (leaf juice)

Juglans regia

In scrofula, syphilis, eczema and herpes (bark and leaf); rheumatism (fruit); as a vermifuge, laxative and in skin diseases (fruit oil); in dysentery and colic (kernel); to treat constipation, chronic coughs, asthma, diarrhoea, dyspepsia, skin ailments and purify the blood; coughs and vertigo (male inflorescences); in the treatment of diarrhoea and anaemia, low back pain, frequent urination, weakness of both legs, chronic cough, asthma, constipation due to dryness or anaemia and stones in the urinary tract, as a poultice to areas of dermatitis and eczema (rind); menstrual problems and dry skin conditions (seed oil); in the treatment of cancer (cotyledons).

Lepidium sativum

The plant is administered in cases of asthma, cough with expectoration and bleeding piles; syphilis, tenesmus (root). The leaves are antiscorbutic, diuretic and stimulant. The seeds are galactogogue. It used to procure an abortion, applied as a poultice to pains and hurts and also used as an aperient.

Lobelia inflata

Cancer therapy, asthma, whooping cough, bronchitis, convulsive and inflammatory diseases, chicken pox, gout, hemorrhoids, migraine, orthopedic, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, throat and venereal maladies, vomiting, ophthalmia, sprains, bruises and skin diseases.

Majorana hortensis

In colic (seed and leaf); bronchial complaints, tension headaches, insomnia, anxiety, minor digestive upsets, painful menstruation, in asthma, hysteria and paralysis (plant); an external application for sprains, bruises, stiff and paralytic limbs and toothache, and for hot fomentation in acute diarrhoea (oil)

Marrubium vulgare

Used for asthma, coughs, colds, bronchitis, sore throats, skin irritations; arrhythmia, associated with anxiety (with Hawthorn leaves) and as a sedative (with Lavender and Balm).

Melaleuca leucadendron

In asthma (leaf); as a tonic (bark powder); for toothache, bronchitis, chronic laryngitis, colic, hysteria and as a liniment in rheumatism and gout (volatile oil).

Mikania glomerata

Cough, bronchitis, throat inflammation, pleurisy, colds, flu, asthma, sore throats, laryngitis, and fever (Leaves); Neuralgia, rheumatic pain, eczema, pruritus and wounds (decoction of the leaves).

Mimosa pudica

Problems of the urinary tract, including stones, to relieve asthma and diarrhea (root decoction); swolen areas involving glands and in hydrocele (leaf paste); in dressings for sinus and also as an application for sores and piles (leaf juice); hemorrhoids (leaf juice and plant); against itching, relieves scabies patches, fistula (plant).

Morus nigra

In the treatment of colds, influenza, eye infections and nosebleeds (leaves); to relieve toothache (barks tincture); for urinary incontinence, tinnitus, premature greying of the hair and constipation in the elderly (fruit); asthma, coughs, bronchitis, oedema, hypertension and diabetes (root bark); to expel tape worms (bark)

Mucuna pruriens

To treat roundworm, sterility, difficult urination and emaciation (seed and root);useful in increasing sperm count, ovulation in women, etc.; in leucorrhoea, menorrhagia, spermatorrhoea, Parkinson's (seed); in facial paralysis and nervous disorders (root); purifies the blood, cures rheumatism, asthma, cough, stone in the bladder and improves vitality (root decoction). Leaf paste is applied to ulcers. This herb is being investigated as a possible remedy for AIDS.

Myrica esculenta

In dysentery, in asthma, diarrhoea, fevers, coughs, catarrh, chronic bronchitis, rheumatism and diuresis (bark); used as a poultice (for external ulcers and wounds).

Myristica fragrans

Used in treatment of pestilential and putrid fevers, asthma and heart disease, digestive disorders, kidney disease and lymphatic ailments. It stimulates the appetite and improves digestion and calms nausea and vomiting. The nutmeg oil is used to dispel flatulence.

Myroxylon balsamum

For asthma, colds and flu, rheumatism and external wounds (leaves and fruit); for abscesses, asthma, bronchitis, catarrh, headache, rheumatism, sores, sprains, tuberculosis, venereal diseases, and wounds (sap)

Nasturtium officinale

Anemia, asthma, bronchitis, cancer, catarrh, cough, depurative, earache, eczema, flu, head colds, kidney ailments, liver ailments, pertussis, piles, scabies, scurvy, sore, tuberculosis, warts, in strangury, goiter, very useful treatment for dietary deficiencies and malnutrition.

Oenothera biennis

Gastro-intestinal disorders, asthma, whooping cough, rheumatoid arthritis; to reduce the pains of premenstrual stress syndrome and is beneficial to the skin of the face (seed oil); to piles and bruises (poulticed root); in the treatment of obesity and bowel pains (tea from root).

Opuntia dillenii

Ophthalmia and for boils (leaf); cures biliousness, burning, leucoderma, urinary complaints, tumours, loss of consciousness, piles, inflammations, anaemia, ulcers, gonorrhoea and the enlargement of the spleen (fruit) ; whooping cough (baked fruit); to increase the secretion of bile and control spasmodic cough and expectoration (fruit syrup); in bronchitis and asthma (flower).

Origanum majorana

Asthma, common cold, bruises, cancer, insomnia, migraine, spasms, women's ailments, digestive disorders, to treat muscular pain, bronchial complaints, arthritis, sprains and stiff joints

Origanum vulgare

In diarrhea, toothache, as a tonic and stimulant (essential oil); as an emmenagogue, in infections of the upper respiratory tract and skin, coughs and periodontal disease (plant); rheumatism (essential oil and plant); in the treatment of colds, bronchitis, asthma, arthritis, muscular pain, influenza, mild feverish illnesses, indigestion, stomach upsets and painful menstruation (plant)

Passiflora foetida

Fruit is emetic, decoction is used in biliousness and asthma. Leaves are applied on the head in giddiness and headache. Their decoction is reportedly used to treat asthma and biliousness. A decoction of the leaves or roots is said to be an emmenagogue and useful for treating hysteria.

Passiflora quadragularis

To relieve nervous headache, asthma, diarrhea, dysentery, neurasthenia and insomnia; for bathing skin afflictions (leaf decoction); in liver complaints (leaf poultice)

Peganum harmala

Asthma, uterine cancer, fever, laryngitis, malaria, menstrual disorders, problems with lice, Parkinson's disease, rheumatism, as a vermifuge, tonic, aphrodisiac, alleviating spasms and as a narcotic and emmenagogue.

Perilla frutescens

For alleviating spasms, as a sedative, antiasthmatic, stimulating the secretion of gastric juices and as a tonic (plant); colds, chest stuffiness, vomiting, abdominal pain etc (leaves); to cuts and wounds (leaf juice); for morning sickness (stem)

Persea macrantha

For ulcers and wounds (leaf); as an antiasthmatic, antirheumatic and laxative (bark); lowers blood pressure (root).

Phoenix dactylifera

For ague, anemia, asthma, bronchitis, cancer, catarrh, chest, condylomata, cough, diarrhea, eyes, fatigue, fever, flu, gonorrhea, endurations, longevity, piles, pterygia, splenitis, sterility, stomachache, thirst, toothache, tuberculosis, urogenital ailments, vaginitis, virility, warts, and whitlows

Phyllanthus amarus

Jaundice and liver diseases, diabetes, influenza, asthma, infections of the bronchial tubes, indigestion, colic, dropsy, as an astringent, diuretic and disorders of the urogenital system and kidney (plant). The whole plant is used to treat jaundice, chronic dysentery, dyspepsia, cough, asthma, indigestion, diabetes, urinary tract diseases, skin diseases, ulcer, sores and swelling. Whole plant is used in gonorrhoea, menorrhagia and other genital affections. It is also useful in dropsy, jaundice, diarrhoea, dysentery, intermittent fevers, ophthalmopathy, scabies, ulcers and wounds. Young shoots and leaves are given in dysentery and ulcers. Fresh root is an excellent remedy for jaundice. The decoction of the plant is a remedy for intermittent fevers and intermittents with infarcts of the spleen and liver.

Picrorhiza kurroa

Jaundice and other liver problems, constipation, indigestion, influenza, ascites, anemia and as a tonic. The drug Picrorhiza extensively used in various ailments like bilious fever, dyspepsia, urinary trouble, asthma, hiccough, blood circulation, burns, liver complaints, paralysis, epilepsy, ringworm infection, scabies and gout.

Pimpinella anisum

In the treatment of various respiratory problems. It is a sexual stimulant and increases the production of breast-milk. It is used the treatment of asthma, whooping couch, coughs and pectoral affections and digestive disorders such as wind, bloating, colic, nausea and indigestion. Externally it is used to treat infestations of lice and scabies. Anise warms the abdomen, dispels gas and is helpful for belching, vomiting, chronic diarrhea, abdominal pains, sluggish digestion and hernia. Star Anise is used as a sedative, especially for nervousness and to induce sleep.

Pimpinella saxifraga

Disorders of the upper respiratory tract, including asthma (mainly used as a last resort), inflammations of the urinary tract and preventing stones there; also in healing wounds; for soothing coughs or the effects of laryngitis, bronchitis, for wounds, bleeding of nose and headache (root)

Piper betle

Increasing the secretion of gastric juices (leaf); alleviating spasms and as an antiseptic (essential oil); abscesses, sores and cuts, asthma, bronchitis, cancer, catarrh, colic, cough, diphtheria, dysentery, earache and nose.

Piper cubeba

Asthma (fruit); in gonorrhea, gleet and inflammation of the bladder.

Piper longum

In rheumatism, inflammation, diarrhea, as a carminative and for disorders of the respiratory tract, such as asthma (fruit); as a stimulant and diuretic (root); increasing the secretion of gastric juices and as an analgesic (root and fruit); as a tonic

Piper retrofractum

For cough, asthma, bronchitis and muscle pains (fruit); Lowers blood pressure (plant).

Pistacia integerrima

Asthma, used in fever, vomitting, loss of apetite, nose bleeding, snake bites and scorpion stings.

Plantago lanceolata

For healing wounds, ulcers, cuts, swellings and in coughs (root and leaf); diarrhoea, gastritis, peptic ulcers, irritable bowel syndrome, haemorrhage, haemorrhoids, cystitis, bronchitis, catarrh, sinusitis, asthma and hay fever (leaf; used in the treatment of parasitic worms and constipation (seed)

Plantago major

It is used in inflammation of the skin, malignant ulcers, intermittent fever, etc., and as a vulnerary, and externally as a stimulant application to sores. The leaves arrest external haemorrhage. The fresh leaves are applied whole or bruised in the form of a poultice. Rubbed on parts of the body stung by insects, nettles, etc., or as an application to burns and scalds. Internally, they are used in the treatment of a wide range of complaints including diarrhoea, gastritis, peptic ulcers, irritable bowel syndrome, haemorrhage, haemorrhoids, cystitis, bronchitis, catarrh, sinusitis, asthma and hay fever. They are used externally in treating skin inflammations, malignant ulcers, cuts, stings etc. The heated leaves are used as a wet dressing for wounds, swellings etc. The root is a remedy for the bite of rattlesnakes. The seeds are used in the treatment of parasitic worms. Plantain seeds contain up to 30% mucilage which swells up in the gut, acting as a bulk laxative and soothing irritated membranes. A distilled water made from the plant makes an excellent eye lotion.

Pogostemon heyneanus

Carminative and diuretic (plant); for cough, asthma, for boils and to relieve headache (leaf); for dropsy, rheumatism (root)

Polygonum aviculare

Maladies of the respiratory tract, such as asthma and bronchitis, useful in diarrhoea, bleeding piles, all haemorrhages, in strangury and as an expellant of stone. The decoction was also administered to kill worms. An alcohol-based preparation has been used with success to treat varicose veins of recent origin. Applied externally, it is an excellent remedy to stay bleeding of the nose and to treat sores.

Portulaca quadrifida

In asthma, cough, urinary discharges, inflammations, peptic ulcer and other abdominal complaints, erysipelas, induce menses and haemorrhoids.

Prunella vulgaris

Hemorrhoids (leaf); as a tonic, antirheumatic, in diarrhea, fever, asthma and cough (plant); sore mouth (plant infusion).

Prunus armeniaca

Used for treating poisoning caused by eating bitter almond and apricot seeds (inner bark or seeds); to soothe inflamed and irritated skin conditions (decoction); in the treatment of asthma, coughs, acute or chronic bronchitis and constipation (seed)

Pulmonaria officinalis

In the treatment of chest conditions, being of particular benefit in cases of chronic bronchitis, to treat asthma; externally to stop bleeding (leaves)

Raphanus sativus

Stimulate the appetite and digestion, having a tonic and laxative effect upon the intestines and indirectly stimulating the flow of bile (root); in the treatment of asthma and other chest complaints (leaves, seeds and old roots); in the treatment of indigestion, abdominal bloating, wind, acid regurgitation, diarrhoea, bronchitis and in the treatment of intestinal parasites (plant). It is crushed and used as a poultice for burns, bruises and smelly feet.

Rheum emodi

Constipation, diarrhoea, children's ailments, poison ivy, biliousness, lumbage, agitated mind, sore eyes, piles, chronic bronchitis, chronic fever, asthma and coryza, pains and bruises.

Salvadora persica

Against gonorrhoea and vesical catarrh (root bark); to relieve the pain due to spleen troubles (root); for gastric troubles especially in gastric ulcers (stem bark); in asthma and cough, in rheumatism, a poultice made out of them is applied to painful tumours and piles (leaves); in biliousness and rheumatism (fruits).

Sambucus nigra

For infections related to the chills, in bronchial asthma, as mouth-wash and gargle, hoarseness, rhinitis and gum inflammation (flower); in sciatica, rheumatism, migraine and cough (fruit); as snuff to stop bleeding of the nose (leaf powder); in epilepsy (bark or flower); in colds, inflamed throat, gout, rheumatism and neuralgia (berries)

Sanguinaria canadensis

HIV/AIDS, asthma, bronchitis, atonic, dyspepsia, crouph, heart disease weakness and palpitation of the heart, pulmonary consumption, nervous irritation, torpid liver, scrofula, dysentery, ulcers, fungoid growths and cancerous affections.

Sapindus laurifolius

As a tonic, laxative, anthelmintic, in hysteria and asthma (fruit and root bark).

Saussurea costus

In skin diseases, rheumatism and as a fumigant (root oil); cholera, increasing the secretion of gastric juices, asthma, bronchitis, in the treatment of abdominal distension and pain, chest pains due to liver problems and jaundice, gall bladder pain, constipation associated with energy stagnation (root).

Saussurea lappa

Respiratory disorders like bronchitis, asthma, cough; especially useful in controlling attacks of bronchial asthma; the combined action of the essenial oil and the alkaloid in the root restrict paroxysms; the alkaloid saussurine has a depressant action.

Schisandra chinensis

Harmonize processes of the internal organs and help control the balance of the body's physiological processes, promotes endurance, anti-aging; in the treatment of dry coughs, asthma, night sweats, urinary disorders, involuntary ejaculation, chronic diarrhoea, palpitations, insomnia, poor memory, hyperacidity, hepatitis and diabetes (fruit); in the treatment of cancer (seeds); in the treatment of coughs, dysentery and gonorrhoea (mucilaginous decoction from the branches).

Scopolia anomala

Pupil dilation (leaf tincture); asthma, colic and hyperacidity.

Sida cordifolia

Spermatorrhea, polyuria and leucorrhea (plant); aphrodisiac (seed); reducing fever (root); sciatica, in paralysis and other nervous disorders (root bark); used to detoxify the body (in fever and rheumatism), in asthma, bronchitis, obesity, aching joints and bones, edema, cough, cold and wheezing (plant extract).

Sisymbrium irio

Infections of the chest and throat (leaf); in asthma (seed). The seeds have been placed under the lids of sore eyes in order to cause weeping and thereby wash foreign matter out of the eye.

Solanum indicum

Toothache, colic and as an antiemetic (root); expectorant and carminative (root and plant); for asthma, fever, catarrh, chest pains, colic, cough (dry and spasmodic)and edema (plant).

Solanum stramonifolium

Asthma and rheumatism (root); sore throat (fruit).

Solanum surattense

Asthma and cough (root and plant); rheumatism (leaf); sore throat (fruit); as a carminative and in dropsy (plant), for relief in burning sensation in the feet accompanied by vesicular watery eruptions.

Solanum xanthocarpum

Cough, asthma, bronchitits, dropsy, leprosy, constipation, flatulence, sore throat, tonsilitis, gum diseases, snake bites, heart disease, chest pain, certain types of fever, muscular pains, gonorrhoea, dysuria, enlargement of the liver and spleen and stomach. Leaves are applied locally to relieve pain. The juice of berries is used in sore throat. Like roots, seeds are also administered as an expectorant in asthma and cough. The plant is credited with diuretic properties and is used to cure dropsy. Its juice is mixed with whey and ginger and given in fevers. The juice of the leaves, mixed with black pepper, is prescribed in rheumatism.

Solidago virgaurea

In kidney stones and dysentery, asthma, whooping cough, internal lesions, dropsy, and chronic eczema, and in rheumatism, acute and chronic nephritis and oedema of a renal nature with history of dystrophy, in the treatment of urinary infections, chronic catarrh, skin diseases and influenza (plant); in diarrhoea and dysentery (root)

Sonchus arvensis

Cough, bronchitis, asthma and pertussis (root); on swellings (leaves); for eye troubles (plant latex)

Stachytarpheta jamaicensis

As an antiinflammatory and reducing fever, for treating intestinal worms, venereal diseases, erysipelas, dropsy, asthma, bronchitis, rheumatism and stomach ailments (indigestion, acid reflux, ulcers, constipation, dyspepsia, slow digestion) (plant); for cataract and open sores (plant juice); for colds and cough, in cardiac troubles and are also rubbed on sprains and bruises or used as cataplasm for boils (leaves); applied topically to treat dysentery (Paste of stem and root bark)

Stellaria media

As a plaster in swolen areas and broken bones, to relieve constipation, useful in rheumatism, inflammations of the digestive, renal, respiratory and reproductive tracts, asthma, congestion, and bronchitis, obesity, high cholesterol, in severe inflammations of skin, such as erysipelas, scalds and burns, crural ulcers, haemorrhoids, eczema, to soothe severe itchiness and inflammations of eyes (plant); as a poultice or ointment for skin irritation and inflammation as well as for skin ulcers. Boils, carbuncles, and abscesses

Stephania glabra

For tuberculosis, asthma, diabetes, maladies in the urinary tract, reducing fever and in dysentery (root)

Stereospermum suaveolens

It is used to treat inflammations, vomiting, dyspepsia, flatulence, asthma, fevers, anasarca, diseases of the blood and distaste. A decoction of the roots is sued to treat a variety of conditions, including intermittent and puerperal fevers, inflammatory chest affections, and affections of the brain. The root bark is generally used in combination with other plant drugs.

Styrax benzoin

Used in the treatment of asthma, bronchosis, cancer, catarrh, colic, constipation, corn, cough, cramp, dermatosis, enterosis, gout, immunodepression, laryngosis, nervousness, rheumatism, stomachache, stroke and ulcer.

Swertia chirata

As tonic to heart, liver and eyes, resolvent, drying, astringent, liquifying, balgham, cough, scanty urine, melancholia, dropsy, sciatia, skin diseases. An excellent drug for intermittent fevers, skin diseases, intestinal worms, bronchial asthma, burning of the body, regulating the bowels.

Syzygium cumini

In diabetes (powdered kernel, fruit and bark); diarrhea (bark decoction and leaf); dysentery, indigestion, purify blood, venereal ulcers in syphilis (bark); asthma and bronchitis (fruit).

Tamarindus indica

As an astringent in bowel complaints, to weaken the action of resinous cathartics (pulp); in correcting bilious disorders, for rheumatism (plant); used in subacid infusions, and a decoction is said to destroy worms in children, and is also useful for jaundice, and externally as a wash for sore eyes and ulcers (leaves)In some forms of sore throat the fruit has been found of service; for asthma (bark).

Tamus communis

To unbroken chilblains (root tincture); in gout, rheumatism and paralysis (pulp); to treat asthma, dermatosis, rhinitis, sore and strain.

Taxus baccata

The leaves have been used internally in the treatment of asthma, bronchitis, hiccup, indigestion, rheumatism and epilepsy. Externally, the leaves have been used in a steam bath as a treatment for rheumatism. A homeopathic remedy is made from the young shoots and the berries. It is used in the treatment of cystitis, eruptions, headaches, heart and kidney problems, rheumatism etc.

Terminalia chebula

Stomach problems, tooth decay, hemorrhoids, external wounds, ulcers, scalds, inflammation of the mouth mucosa, increases the secretion of gastric juices (fruit); in asthma, sore throat, vomiting, sore eyes, heart diseases, hiccups, indigestion, constipation etc.

Thymus vulgaris

The plant is used internally in the treatment of dry coughs, whooping cough, bronchitis, bronchial catarrh, cold, asthma, laryngitis, indigestion, gastritis and diarrhoea and enuresis in children. Externally, it is used in the treatment of tonsillitis, gum diseases, rheumatism, arthritis and fungal infections (Athlete's foot).The whole herb is used in the treatment of digestive disorders, sore throats, fevers etc.

Trachyspermum roxburghianum

In flatulence, dyspepsia, diarrhoea, pharyngitis, rheumatoid arthritis, bronchitis, cough, asthma and strangury (fruit).

Tragia involucrata

In baldness (fruit); as a tonic, antileprotic and diaphoretic (root). Used for treating asthma, fevers, diarrhea, excessive urination, vomiting, dermatosis, perspiration in fevers and itching of the skin.

Trifolium pratense

For asthma, whooping cough and bronchitis (flower); in treating athlete's foot, bronchitis, burns, cancer, constipation, diuretic, expectorant, gall-bladder stones, gout, liver diseases, pertussis, rheumatism, skin sores, ulcers, for sore eyes and as a salve for burns (plant); for cancerous ulcers, corns etc. (flower extract)

Tussilago farfara

For inflammations of the upper respiratory tract (such as in emphysema and silicosis) and ailments associated with chills (both of the aforementioned conditions are usually associated with a cough) (leaf and flower); in colds, coughs, dyspepsia, diarrhoea, rheumatism, nervous disorders and asthma (leaves)

Tylophora indica

In rheumatism, asthma, whooping cough, bronchitis and dysentery (root); in hydrophobia (leaf and root). Used for treating whooping cough, for reducing lochia, malarial fever, jaundice. They are used to treat diarrhoea and dysentery.

Urginea indica

In rheumatism, asthma, preparing “chandni bhasma” (which is used in paralysis), as a deobustruent, prescribed for dropsy, rheumatism, skin diseases, bronchitis, asthma, renal calculi, leprosy, scabies, headaches and diseases of the nose (bulb).

Viburnum prunifolium

To treat gynecological conditions, including menstrual cramps, to prevent miscarriages, aiding recovery after childbirth, in treating the effects of menopause, dysentery, haemorrhage of the uterus, prolapse of the uterus, morning sickness, convulsive disorders, colic and other cramping pains that affect the bile ducts, hysteria, asthma and palpitations of a nervous origin (decoction)

Viola odorata

For abdominal pain (oil); in asthma, bronchitis, sore throat and malaria (plant); as an emetic (root and seed); in kidney stones, as a diaphoretic, expectorant, antipyretic and diuretic; also used as a laxative (flower, root and seed). Violet flowers possess slightly laxative properties. Syrup of Violets is also employed as a laxative, and as a coloring agent and flavouring in other neutral or acid medicines. The flowers have undoubted expectorant qualities. The fresh flowers are also added to salads; have a laxative effect.

Viola tricolor

In disorders of blood, rheumatism, eczema and other skin complaints (herb); asthma, epilepsy, cystitis and diseases of infants.

Withania coagulans

Asthma, indigestion, coagulating milk, in chronic complaints of liver (fruit); employed in dyspepsia, flatulent colic and other intestinal affections (dried fruit); for cleaning teeth, and the smoke of the plant is inhaled for relief in toothache (twig).

Withania somnifera

Rheumatism (root and plant); to coagulate milk (seed); as a uterine sedative, in dropsy, ulcers, scabies, asthma, cough and as a tonic (root); cancer and AIDS; “rasayana agent” in “Ayurveda” medicine (enhances sexual performance),to treat nervous exhaustion, debility, insomnia, wasting diseases, failure to thrive in children, impotence, infertility, multiple sclerosis, applied as a poultice to boils, swellings and other painful parts.

Zanthoxylum acanthopodium

Chronic rheumatism, typhoid and skin diseases and impurity of the blood, fever, children's ailments, common cold, cough, gastro-intestinal disturbances, heart ailments, kidney ailments, orthopedic ailments, pulmonary ailments and respiratory ailments. To relieve toothache (fruit juice)

Zanthoxylum alatum

Leucoderma, problems with the spleen, diseases of the eye and ear, asthma and tumors (fruit); for gastrointestinal disorders; in treating tumours, odontalgia, cephalagia, opthalmia, dyspepsia, colic, flatulence, helminthiasis, diarrhoea, hepatopathy, splenitis, strangury, fever, leucoderma, leprosy, skin diseases, cough, asthma, paralysis, gout, convulsions, diabetes, wounds, ulcers, stomatitis, pharyngitis, cardiac debility and general debility (bark and fruit)

Zanthoxylum limonella

Rheumatism, asthma, bronchitis, heart disorders and diarrhea (fruit); in cholera (seed tincture)

Zingiber officinalis

A household remedy for flatulence and colic, for diarrhoea from relaxed bowel where there is no inflammation, for atherosclerosis, heart disease, chemotherapy support, migraine headaches, morning sickness, motion sickness, nausea and vomiting following surgery, rheumatoid arthritis, belching, laryngitis, vomiting, constipation, incontinence, flatulence, colic, spasms, fever, eye diseases, asthma, colds, cough, arthritis, bursitis, fibrocystic breasts, lymphedema, in nervous diseases, and for incontinence of urine.




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